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Djibuti

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Djibuti



DADOS PRINCIPAIS:
Nome oficial: República do Djibuti (Jumhuriya Jibuti/République de Djibouti).
Nacionalidade: Djibutiano.
Data nacional: 27 de junho (Independência).
Capital: Djibuti.
Cidade principal: Djibuti (383.000) (1995).Idioma: francês (oficial), quicongo, lingala.
Idioma: árabe e francês (oficiais), somali, afar.
Religião: islamismo 97,2% (sunitas), cristianismo 2,8% (católicos 2,2%, protestantes 0,1%, ortodoxos 0,5%) (1995).

GEOGRAFIA:
Localização: leste da África.
Hora local: + 6h.
Área: 23.200 km2.
Clima: árido tropical.

POPULAÇÃO:
Total: 640 mil (2000), sendo issas 60%, afars 35%, outros 5% (1996).
Densidade: 27,5 hab./km2.
População urbana: 83% (1998).
População rural: 17% (1998).
Crescimento demográfico: 2% ao ano (1998).
Fecundidade: 5,3 filhos por mulher (1995-2000).
Expectativa de vida M/F: 49/52 anos (1995-2000).
Mortalidade infantil: 106 por mil nascimentos (1995-2000).
Analfabetismo: 48,6% (2000). IDH (0-1): 0,447 (1998).

POLÍTICA:
Forma de governo: República com forma mista de governo.
Divisão administrativa: 5 distritos.
Principais partidos: União Popular pelo Progresso (RPP), Frente pela Restauração da Unidade e da Democracia (Frud), da Renovação Democrática (PRD).
Legislativo: unicameral - Câmara dos Deputados, com 65 membros eleitos por voto direto para mandato de 5 anos.
Constituição em vigor: 1992.

ECONOMIA:
Moeda: franco do Djibuti.
PIB: US$ 500 milhões (1997).
PIB agropecuária: 4% (1998).
PIB indústria: 21% (1998).
PIB serviços: 75% (1997).
Crescimento do PIB: 1% ao ano (1998).
Força de trabalho: 280 mil (1991).
Agricultura: legumes e verduras.
Pecuária: bovinos, ovinos, caprinos, camelos.
Pesca: 340 t (1997).
Mineração: calcário, argila, areia e cascalho, pedra.
Indústria: produção de energia (elétrica).
Exportações: US$ 23 milhões (1997).
Importações: US$ 310 milhões (1997).
Parceiros comerciais: França, Etiópia, Arábia Saudita, Somália, Iêmen, Reino Unido.

DEFESA:
Efetivo total: 9,6 mil (1998).
Gastos: US$ 21 milhões (1998).

RELAÇÕES EXTERIORES:
Organizações: Banco Mundial, FMI, OMC, ONU, OUA.
Embaixada: Tel. (202) 331-0270 - Washington D.C., EUA. - Não há embaixada no Brasil.


O Djibuti ou Jibuti , também conhecido pela forma francesa Djibouti, oficialmente República do Jibuti, é um pequeno país do nordeste de África, limitado a norte pela Eritreia, a leste pelo estreito de Bab el Mandeb, pelo Golfo de Áden e pela Somália e a sul e oeste pela Etiópia. A capital é Djibouti.

O país está localizado na África Oriental, mais precisamente a leste do golfo de Áden. O golfo, o mar Vermelho e o canal de Suez são acidentes geográficos que servem de acesso ao oceano Índico e ao mar Mediterrâneo. A contribuição dada pela localização de Djibouti foi a transformação da capital do mesmo nome, em um porto principal. De modo potencial, a importância dessa localização é estratégica. Apesar da livre passagem dos navios pela litoral de Djibuti, para uma nação poderosa tomar posse da área, a possibilidade seria o controle da navegação de navios entre o oceano Índico e o mar Mediterrâneo.

O Djibuti é o 133º país mais rico do mundo por PIB per capita e a 167ª maior economia por PIB, quase com ausência de recursos naturais. A independência do Djibuti foi proclamada em 1977, em relação à França, cuja área foi dominada a partir do final do século XIX. O primeiro nome dado pelos franceses ao país foi Somália Francesa; em 1967, recebeu o nome de Território Francês dos Afares e Issas.

Primeiros habitantes, colonização e independência

O Djibuti foi habitado por povos vindos da Arábia no século III antes de Cristo, aproximadamente. Eles se estabeleceram ao norte e deles se originaram os afars. Vindos da Somália, os issas expulsaram esses primeiros habitantes e se estabeleceram na região litorânea. Na nossa era, mais precisamente em 852, chegaram novos agrupamentos árabes, que dominavam o comércio da região até o advento dos portugueses, no século XVI. Mas, os portugueses também perderam o interesse pela região, abandonando-a aos árabes quando seus interesses passaram a se concentrar no Oriente.

Em 1888, foi estabelecida pela França a colônia denominada Costa Francesa dos Somalis, cuja capital foi Djibouti desde 1892. Na época teve início a construção da ferrovia como elo de ligação entre Djibuti e a Etiópia. A entrada ao interior se tornou possível devido às estradas construídas de 1924 até 1934. Na época da Segunda Guerra Mundial, mais precisamente em 1940, foi estabelecido no Djibuti um governo neutro, fazendo parte do regime francês de Vichy. Posteriormente, o porto de Assab, na Eritreia, ganhou mais importância do que o de Djibuti.

No ano de 1946, a região foi convertida em território francês de ultramar. No ano de 1958, a decisão dos moradores da Costa dos Somalis era a permanência na Comunidade Francesa, com a maioria absoluta dos votos válidos a favor feita pelos afars e pelos europeus. Mas, o eleitorado issa era contrário à essa decisão. Em 1967, nova eleição aprovou que o Djibuti se vinculasse com a França, mas em 1977 um último plebiscito proclamou a independência do Djibuti.

Últimas décadas do século XX

No início da década de 1980 agravaram-se as tensões entre as duas grandes comunidades étnicas do país, enquanto a chegada de refugiados das zonas de guerra próximas contribuía para piorar a situação socioeconômica já instável. Em 1987 realizaram-se pela segunda vez eleições presidenciais e legislativas, nas quais saiu vitorioso o único partido concorrente, a União Popular pelo Progresso (RPP). Em 1994, a Frud se dividiu. Uma facção negociou com o governo, enquanto outro setor mantém a guerra civil. Em 1996, a maior parte da Frud virou partido político e, em 1997, concorreu às eleições parlamentares em aliança com a governista União Popular pelo Progresso (RPP). A aliança obteve as 65 cadeiras do parlamento.

Na eleição presidencial de 1999, foi eleito Ismaïl Omar Guelleh (RPP), sobrinho de Gouled. A facção guerrilheira da Frud depôs as armas em 2000, ano em que o general Yacin Yabeh Galeb, chefe da polícia, tenta um golpe de Estado ao ser demitido. Ele foi preso, julgado e condenado a 15 anos de prisão.

Século XXI

Em 2001, Dileita Mohamed Dileita passou a ser o primeiro-ministro. No ano seguinte, o país tornou-se base de ações internacionais contra o terrorismo. Nas eleições de 2003, a coalização governista elege os 65 parlamentares.

Em 2005, o presidente Guelleh foi reeleito sem concorrentes. A oposição boicotou a reeleição, alegando falta de democracia na disputa. Observadores internacionais, porém, consideram boas as condições do pleito.

Em maio de 2006, o governo de Djibouti registrou o primeiro caso humano de infecção pelo vírus da gripe aviária na região. Um relatório da Organização das Nações Unidas acusou o governo do Djibouti, em novembro, de violar o embargo de armas contra a Somália e fornecer armamento às milícias islâmicas que dominaram a capital, Mogadíscio.

Em 2007, a Organização das Nações Unidas pediu ajuda internacional ao Djibouti por causa da seca, que pode deixar 53 mil pessoas sem comida. Em fevereiro de 2008, o partido do governo conseguiu todos os assentos no Parlamento, em eleições boicotadas pela oposição. O novo gabinete tomou posse no mês seguinte e Dileita foi reeleito primeiro-ministro.

Em junho ocorreram mais confrontos com forças da Eritreia na fronteira, deixando pelo menos nove mortos. Em janeiro de 2009, o Conselho de Segurança da Organização das Nações Unidas deu um ultimato à Eritreia para retirar suas tropas da área disputada com o Djibouti em até cinco semanas. O governo do país se negou a cumprir a ordem, alegando que a região ocupada faz parte de seu território. Em outubro, o Djibouti acusou a Eritreia de treinar e armar milícias para promover ataques à nação vizinha.

Geografia

Ver artigo principal: Geografia do Djibouti

O território do Djibouti divide-se em três regiões principais. O litoral, banhado pelas águas do Bab-el-Mandeb e do golfo de Tadjura, não atinge mais de 200m de altitude sobre o nível do mar. No sul e centro do país, erguem-se mesetas vulcânicas que oscilam entre 500 e 2.500m de altitude, às vezes margeadas por depressões e lagos. No norte erguem-se as montanhas que caracterizam a terceira região, cujo ponto culminante é o monte Mussa Ali, com 3 500m. Em geral, toda a superfície do Djibouti é árida, recortada por depressões profundas e coberta de areais. Na zona montanhosa correm três riachos de leito arenoso, o Sadai, o Adaleyi e o Iboli. Um rio subterrâneo, o Ambouli, constitui importante fonte de fornecimento de água.

O clima do Djibouti é tórrido, com temperaturas máximas diurnas que oscilam entre 29° C em janeiro e 43° C em julho. De novembro a abril há uma estação relativamente fresca, com temperaturas médias diurnas entre 22° C e 30° C. As chuvas, procedentes do oceano Índico, ocorrem desde o término do verão até o final de março, mas as precipitações só atingem 125mm por ano no litoral e pouco mais de vinte milímetros no interior do país.

A maior parte do território é desértica, com vegetação de arbustos espinhosos e alguns pastos. Nas montanhas há também áreas florestais e no litoral crescem tamareiras e tamarineiras. A fauna do Djibouti inclui linces, chacais, antílopes e gazelas. Apenas um por cento da superfície do país é cultivável e cerca de nove por cento servem de pasto.

Demografia





Os habitantes do Djibuti pertencem a dois grandes grupos étnicos: os issas, que compreendem quase metade da população, e os afars ou danakils, que representam dois quintos do total. Com eles convivem minorias de árabes e europeus. Os afars e os issas são tribos aparentadas que falam línguas de origem comum, compartilham hábitos nômades e praticam a religião islâmica. Os afars concentram-se no norte e no oeste do país e os issas, no sul. As línguas oficiais são o francês e o árabe.


Djibouti (jee-BOO-tee; Arabic: جيبوتي‎ Jībūtī, French: Djibouti, Somali: Jabuuti, Afar: Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, and Somalia in the southeast. The remainder of the border is formed by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden at the east. Djibouti occupies a total area of just 23,200 km2 (8,958 sq mi).

In antiquity, the territory was part of the Land of Punt. The Djibouti area, along with other localities in the Horn region, was later the seat of the medieval Adal and Ifat Sultanates. In the late 19th century, the colony of French Somaliland was established following treaties signed by the ruling Somali and Afar Sultans with the French. It was subsequently renamed to the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas in 1967. A decade later, the Djiboutian people voted for independence. This officially marked the establishment of the Republic of Djibouti, named after its capital city. Djibouti joined the United Nations the same year, on September 20, 1977. In the early 1990s, tensions over government representation led to armed conflict, which ended in a power sharing agreement in 2000 between the ruling party and the opposition.

Djibouti is a multi-ethnic nation, with a population of over 790,000 inhabitants. The Somali and Afar make up the two largest ethnic groups. Both speak Afro-Asiatic languages, which serve as recognized national languages. Arabic and French constitute the country's two official languages. About 94% of residents adhere to Islam, a religion that has been predominant in the region for more than 1,000 years.

Djibouti is strategically located near the world's busiest shipping lanes, controlling access to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. It serves as a key refueling and transshipment center, and is the principal maritime port for imports to and exports from neighboring Ethiopia. A burgeoning commercial hub, the nation is the site of various foreign military bases, including Camp Lemonnier. The Intergovernmental Authority on Development regional body also has its headquarters in Djibouti City



History

Main article: History of Djibouti

Together with northern Somalia, Eritrea and the Red Sea coast of Sudan, Djibouti is considered the most likely location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt (or Ta Netjeru, meaning "God's Land"), whose first mention dates to the 25th century BCE. The Puntites were a nation of people who had close relations with Ancient Egypt during the times of Pharaoh Sahure and Queen Hatshepsut. According to the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahari, the Land of Punt was ruled at that time by King Parahu and Queen Ati.

Through close contacts with the adjacent Arabian Peninsula for more than 1,000 years, the Somali and Afar ethnic groups in the region became among the first populations on the continent to embrace Islam.





Map of the Ifat Sultanate in the 14th century
The Ifat Sultanate was a medieval kingdom in the Horn of Africa. Founded in 1285 by the Walashma dynasty, it was centered in Zeila. Ifat established bases in Djibouti and northern Somalia, and from there expanded southward to the Ahmar Mountains. Its Sultan Umar Walashma (or his son Ali, according to another source) is recorded as having conquered the Sultanate of Shewa in 1285. Taddesse Tamrat explains Sultan Umar's military expedition as an effort to consolidate the Muslim territories in the Horn, in much the same way as Emperor Yekuno Amlak was attempting to unite the Christian territories in the highlands during the same period. These two states inevitably came into conflict over Shewa and territories further south. A lengthy war ensued, but the Muslim sultanates of the time were not strongly unified. Ifat was finally defeated by Emperor Amda Seyon I of Ethiopia in 1332, and withdrew from Shewa.

From 1862 until 1894, the land to the north of the Gulf of Tadjoura was called Obock and was ruled by Somali and Afar Sultans, local authorities with whom France signed various treaties between 1883 and 1887 to first gain a foothold in the region. In 1894, Léonce Lagarde established a permanent French administration in the city of Djibouti and named the region French Somaliland. It lasted from 1896 until 1967, when it was renamed the Territoire Français des Afars et des Issas (TFAI) ("French Territory of the Afars and the Issas").

In 1958, on the eve of neighboring Somalia's independence in 1960, a referendum was held in Djibouti to decide whether to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France. The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, partly due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans. There was also widespread vote rigging, with the French expelling thousands of Somalis before the referendum reached the polls. The majority of those who voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later.





Aerial view of Djibouti City, the capital of Djibouti.
In 1967, a second plebiscite was held to determine the fate of the territory. Initial results supported a continued but looser relationship with France. Voting was also divided along ethnic lines, with the resident Somalis generally voting for independence, with the goal of eventual union with Somalia, and the Afars largely opting to remain associated with France. However, the referendum was again marred by reports of vote rigging on the part of the French authorities. Shortly after the referendum was held, the former Côte française des Somalis (French Somaliland) was renamed to Territoire français des Afars et des Issas.

In 1977, a third referendum took place. A landslide 98.8% of the electorate supported disengagement from France, officially marking Djibouti's independence. Hassan Gouled Aptidon, a Somali politician who had campaigned for a yes vote in the referendum of 1958, eventually wound up as the nation's first president (1977–1999).

During its first year, Djibouti joined the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), the Arab League and United Nations. In 1986, the nascent republic was also among the founding members of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development regional development organization.

In the early 1990s, tensions over government representation led to armed conflict between Djibouti's ruling People's Rally for Progress (RPP) party and the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) opposition group. The impasse ended in a power sharing agreement in 2000.

Politics.

Further information: Politics of Djibouti

See also: Elections in Djibouti

Djibouti is a semi-presidential republic, with executive power resting in the central government, and legislative power in both the government and the Djiboutian National Assembly.

Governance


President of Djibouti, Ismaïl Omar Guelleh.
The President, currently Ismaïl Omar Guelleh, is the pre-eminent figure in Djiboutian politics; the head of state and commander-in-chief. The President shares executive power with his or her appointee, the Prime Minister, currently Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed. The Council of Ministers (cabinet) is responsible to the legislature and presided over by the President.

The judicial system consists of courts of first instance, a High Court of Appeal, and a Supreme Court. The legal system is a blend of French civil law, Sharia (Islamic law) and customary law (Xeer) of the Somali and Afar peoples.

The National Assembly (formerly the Chamber of Deputies) is the country's legislature, consisting of 65 members elected every five years. Although unicameral, the Constitution provides for the creation of a Senate.





Dileita Mohamed Dileita, former Prime Minister of Djibouti, Vice-President of the People's Rally for Progress (RPP), and President of the Union for a Presidential Majority (UMP).
The last election was held on 8 February 2008. Djibouti is a one party dominant state, with the People's Rally for Progress (RPP) controlling the legislature and the executive since its foundation in 1979 (the party currently rules as a part of the Union for a Presidential Majority, which holds all seats). Opposition parties are allowed limited freedom, but the main opposition party, the Union for National Salvation, boycotted the 2005 and 2008 elections, citing government control of the media and repression of the opposition candidates.

The government is dominated by the Somali Issa Dir clan, who enjoy the support of the Somali clans, especially the Isaaq (the clan of the current president's wife and many ministers & government officials) and the Gadabuursi Dir (who are the third most prominent Somali clan in Djibouti politics). The country emerged out of a decade-long civil war at the end of the 1990s, with the government and the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) signing a peace treaty in 2000. Two FRUD members subsequently joined the cabinet, and beginning with the presidential elections of 1999, the FRUD has campaigned in support of the RPP.

Djibouti's current president, Guelleh, succeeded Hassan Gouled Aptidon in office in 1999. Guelleh was sworn in for his second six-year term after a one-man election on 8 April 2005. He took 100% of the votes in a 78.9% turnout. In early 2011, the Djiboutian citizenry took part in a series of protests against the long-serving government, which were associated with the larger Arab Spring demonstrations. Guelleh was re-elected to a third term later that year, with 80.63% of the vote in a 75% turnout. Although opposition groups boycotted the ballot over changes to the constitution permitting Guelleh to run again for office, international observers generally described the election as free and fair.

On 31 March 2013, Guelleh replaced long-serving Prime Minister Dilleita Mohamed Dilleita with former president of the Union for a Presidential Majority (UMP) Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed


Djibouti's economy is largely concentrated in the service sector. Commercial activities revolve around the country's free trade policies and strategic location as a Red Sea transit point. Due to limited rainfall, vegetables and fruits serve as the principal production crops, and other food items require importation. The GDP in 2012 was estimated at $2.377 billion, with a real growth rate of 4.8% annually. Per capita income was around $2,700.

As of 2013, the container terminal at the Port of Djibouti handles the bulk of the nation's trade. About 70% of the seaport's activity consists of imports to and exports from neighboring Ethiopia, which depends on the harbour as its main maritime outlet. The port also serves as an international refueling center and transshipment hub. In 2012, the Djiboutian government in collaboration with DP World started construction on the Doraleh Container Terminal, a third major seaport intended to further develop the national transit capacity. A $396 million project, it has the capacity to accommodate 1.5 million twenty foot container units annually.

Djibouti was ranked the 177th safest investment destination in the world in the March 2011 Euromoney Country Risk rankings. To improve the environment for direct foreign investment, the Djibouti authorities in conjunction with various non-profit organizations have launched a number of development projects aimed at highlighting the country's commercial potential. The government has also introduced new private sector policies targeting high interest and inflation rates, including relaxing the tax burden on enterprises and allowing for exemptions on consumption tax.

Additionally, efforts have been made to lower the estimated 60% urban unemployment rate by creating more job opportunities through investment in diversified sectors. Funds have especially gone toward building telecommunications infrastructure and increasing disposable income by supporting small businesses. Owing to its growth potential, the fishing and agro-processing sector, which represents around 15% of GDP, has also enjoyed rising investment since 2008.





Graphical depiction of Djibouti's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.
To expand the modest industrial sector, a 56 megawatt geothermal power plant slated to be completed by 2018 is being constructed with the help of OPEC, the World Bank and the Global Environmental Facility. The facility is expected to solve the recurring issue of electricity shortages, decrease the nation's reliance on Ethiopia for energy, reduce costly oil imports for diesel-generated electricity, and thereby buttress the GDP and lower debt.





A truck operator at Al Gamil, the largest construction company in Djibouti.
The Djibouti firm Salt Investment (SIS) began a large-scale operation to industrialize the plentiful salt in Djibouti's Lake Assal region. Operating at an annual capacity of 4 million tons, the desalination project has lifted export revenues, created more job opportunities, and provided more fresh water for the area's residents. In 2012, the Djibouti government also enlisted the services of the China Harbor Engineering Company Ltd for the construction of an ore terminal in the area. Worth $64 million, the project is scheduled to be completed within two years and will enable Djibouti mineral officials to export a further 5 thousand tons of salt per year to markets in Southeast Asia.

The Djiboutian franc is the currency of Djibouti. It is issued by the Central Bank of Djibouti, the country's monetary authority. Since the Djiboutian franc is pegged to the U.S. dollar, it is generally stable and inflation is not a problem. This has contributed to the growing interest in investment in the country.

As of 2010, 10 conventional and Islamic banks operate in Djibouti. Most arrived within the past few years, including the Somali money transfer company Dahabshiil and BDCD, a subsidiary of Swiss Financial Investments. The banking system had heretofore been monopolized by two institutions, the Indo-Suez Bank and the Commercial and Industrial Bank (BCIMR).[40] To assure a robust credit and deposit sector, the government requires commercial banks to maintain 30% of shares in the financial institution; a minimum of 300 million Djiboutian francs in up front capital is mandatory for international banks. Lending has likewise been encouraged by the creation of a guarantee fund, which allows banks to issue loans to eligible small-and-medium sized businesses without first requiring a large deposit or other collateral.

Saudi investors are also reportedly exploring the possibility of linking the Horn of Africa with the Arabian Peninsula via an 18-mile (29 km) long oversea bridge through Djibouti referred to as the Bridge of the Horns. The investor Tarek bin Laden has been linked to the project.

Demographics





Djibouti is a multiethnic country. The two largest ethnic groups are the Somali (60%) and the Afar (35%). The Somali clan component is mainly composed of the Issas, and Gadabuursi. Both are sub-clans of the larger Dir; the Issas form part of the Madoobe Dir, while the Gadabuursi are part of the Madaluug Dir. The remaining 5% of Djibouti's population primarily consists of Arabs, Ethiopians and Europeans (French and Italians). Approximately 76% of local residents are urban dwellers; the remainder are pastoralists.

In addition, Djibouti is a multilingual nation, with a population of about 774,389 inhabitants. According to Ethnologue, the majority of the residents speak Somali (297,000 speakers) or Afar (99,200 speakers) as a first language, which are the mother tongues of the Somali and Afar ethnic groups, respectively. Both languages belong to the larger Afro-Asiatic family. There are two official languages in Djibouti: Arabic (Afro-Asiatic) and French (Indo-European). Arabic is of social, cultural and religious importance. In formal settings, it consists of Modern Standard Arabic. Colloquially, about 36,000 local residents speak the Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic dialect, also known as Djibouti Arabic. French was inherited from the colonial period and is the primary language of instruction. About 10,200 Djiboutians speak it as a first language. Immigrant languages include Omani Arabic (38,900 speakers), Amharic (1,400 speakers), Greek (1,000 speakers) and Hindi (600 speakers)


Referência para busca:
Djibuti áfrica árabe francês
Fotos de Djibuti.

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