Nome oficial: Sultanato de Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam).
Data nacional: 23 de fevereiro (Data Nacional).
Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan.
Cidades principais: Bandar Seri Begawan (50.000) (1995); Kuala Belait (21.163), Seria (21.100), Tutong (13.000) (1991).
Idioma: malaio (oficial), chinês, inglês.
Religião: islamismo 67,2%, budismo 12,8%, cristianismo 10%, outras 10% (1991).
Localização: sudeste da Ásia.
Hora local: +11h.
Área: 5.765 km2.
Clima: equatorial chuvoso.
Área de floresta: 4 mil km2 (1995).
Total: 330 mil (2000), sendo malaios 64%, chineses 20%, grupos étnicos autóctones 8%, tamis 3%, outros 5% (1996).
Densidade: 56,9 hab./km2.
População urbana: 71% (1998).
População rural: 29% (1998).
Crescimento demográfico: 2% ao ano (1998).
Fecundidade: 2,8 filhos por mulher (1995-2000).
Expectativa de vida M/F: 73/78 anos (1995-2000).
Mortalidade infantil: 10 por mil nascimentos (1995-2000).
Analfabetismo: 8,4% (2000).
IDH (0-1): 0,848 (1998).
Forma de governo: Monarquia islâmica (sultanato).
Divisão administrativa: 4 distritos.
Partido político: Solidariedade Nacional de Brunei (PPKB) (único legal).
Legislativo: não há.
Constituição em vigor: 1959.
Moeda: dólar do Brunei.
PIB: US$ 4,9 bilhões (1998).
PIB agropecuária: 3% (1998).
PIB indústria: 44% (1998).
PIB serviços: 53% (1998).
Crescimento do PIB: 1% ao ano (1998).
Renda per capita: US$ 27.270 (1997).
Força de trabalho: 140 mil (1998).
Agricultura: arroz, banana, abacaxi, mandioca.
Pecuária: bovinos, búfalos, caprinos, aves.
Pesca: 4,7mil t (1997).
Mineração: petróleo, gás natural.
Indústria: refino de petróleo, têxtil.
Exportações: US$ 3,2 bilhões (1997).
Importações: US$ 2 bilhões (1997).
Principais parceiros comerciais: Cingapura, Reino Unido, Malásia, EUA, Japão, Coréia do Sul, Tailândia.
Efetivo total: 5 mil (1998).
Gastos: US$ 371 milhões (1998).
Organizações: Apec, Asean, Banco Mundial, Comunidade Britânica, FMI, OMC, ONU.
Embaixada: Tel. (202) 342-0159, fax (202) 342-0158 - Washington D.C., EUA. - Não há embaixada no Brasil.
O Brunei, ( /bruːˈnaɪ/) oficialmente Nação de Brunei, a Morada da Paz4 ou Estado do Brunei Darussalã5 (em malaio: Negara Brunei Darussalam; Jawi: نڬارا بروني دارالسلام, em árabe: دولة بروناي، دار السلام), é um estado soberano localizado na costa norte da ilha do Bornéu, no Sudeste Asiático. Além de seu litoral com o mar da China Meridional, é completamente cercado pelo estado de Sarawak, na Malásia, e é dividido em duas partes pelo distrito de Sarawak, Limbang. É o único estado soberano completamente na ilha de Bornéu, com o restante da ilha, formando partes da Malásia e Indonésia. A população de Brunei era 401.890 em julho de 2011.
As reivindicações oficiais da história nacional de Brunei podem traçar suas origens ao século VII, quando era um estado sujeito chamado P'o-li, na Sumatra, centro do império Srivijaya. Ele mais tarde se tornou um Estado vassalo de Java, centro do império Majapahit. Brunei se tornou um sultanato, no século XIV, sob o recém-convertido sultão islâmico Shah Muhammad.
No auge do Império de Brunei, o sultão Bolkiah (reinando de 1485-1528) tinha controle sobre as regiões do norte de Bornéu, incluindo a moderna Sarawak e Sabá, bem como o arquipélago de Sulu ao largo da ponta nordeste de Bornéu, Seludong (hoje a Manila moderna) e as ilhas ao largo da ponta noroeste de Bornéu. A talassocracia foi visitada pelos espanhóis da expedição de Magalhães em 1521 e lutaram pela Espanha em 1578 na Guerra de Castela. O Império de Brunei começou a declinar, atingindo sua forma moderna em 1890 após o progressivo século XIX cedendo Sarawak para o Reino de Sarawak e Sabá sendo cedida a British North Borneo Chartered Company. Brunei se tornou um protetorado britânico em 1888 e foi atribuído um residente britânico em 1906. Nos anos após a ocupação de guerra japonesa durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, ele formalizou uma constituição e lutou numa rebelião armada. Brunei recuperou a sua independência do Reino Unido em 1 de Janeiro de 1984. O crescimento econômico durante os anos 1970 e 1990, com média de 56% de 1999 a 2008, transformou Brunei em um país recém-industrializado.
Brunei tem o segundo maior índice de desenvolvimento humano entre as nações do sudeste asiático depois de Singapura, e é classificado como um país desenvolvido.8 De acordo com o Fundo Monetário Internacional (FMI), Brunei é classificado em 5º no mundo em produto interno bruto per capita em paridade de poder aquisitivo. A revista Forbes também classificou Brunei como a quinta nação mais rica entre 182 nações, devido à sua extensa área de petróleo e de gás natural.
O túmulo de Abdul Majid Hassan, governante de "Poli", em Nanquim.
Na ausência de mais fontes e provas, os estudiosos criaram uma história antiga de Brunei, que baseia-se principalmente em interpretações flexíveis de textos em chinês. Esta primeira parte diz: registros chineses do século VI mencionam um estado chamado Po-li na costa noroeste de Bornéu. No século VII, as contas chinesas e árabes indicarão um lugar chamado Vijayapura, que acredita-se ter sido fundado por membros da família real de Funan. Acredita-se que eles desembarcaram na costa noroeste de Bornéu com alguns de seus seguidores. Eles, então, capturaram P'o-li e renomearam-a de território "Vijayapura" (que significa "vitória" em sânscrito). Em 977, os registros chineses começaram a usar Po-ni, em vez de Vijayapura para se referir ao Brunei. Em 1225 um funcionário chinês chamado Chua Ju-Kua informou que Brunei tinha 100 navios de guerra para proteger seu comércio e que havia uma grande quantidade de ouro no reino. Outro relatório em 1280 descreveu que Po-ni controlava grandes partes da ilha do Bornéu, atualmente as regiões de Sabá e Sarawak, Sulu e algumas partes da Filipinas. No século XIV, Po-ni tornou-se um estado vassalo de Majapahit, e teve de pagar um pagamento anual de 40 Katis de cânfora. Po-ni foi atacada e teve seu tesouro e ouro saqueados pelos Sulus em 1369. Uma frota de Majapahit conseguiu afastar os Sulus mas Po-ni tornou-se muito mais fraca após o ataque. Um relatório chinês de 1371 descreve Po-ni como pobre e totalmente controlada por Majapahit.
O poder do Sultanato de Brunei estava no seu auge, entre os século XV e XVII, com o seu poder que se estende do norte de Bornéu para sul das Filipinas.
Por volta do século XVI, o Islã era firmemente se enraizou no Brunei, o país havia construído uma de suas maiores mesquitas. Em 1578, Alonso Beltrán, um viajante espanhol descreveu como sendo cinco andares de altura e construído sobre a água
Guerra contra Espanha e declínio[editar]
A influência européia gradualmente trouxe um fim ao poder regional, como Brunei entrou em um período de declínio agravado por conflitos internos sobre a sucessão real. Pirataria também foi prejudicial para o reino. A Espanha declarou guerra em 1578, atacando e capturando a capital de Brunei, na época, Kota Batu. Isto foi conseguido como resultado, em parte, da assistência prestada a eles por dois nobres de Brunei, Pengiran Seri Lela e Pengiran Seri Ratna. O primeiro tinha viajado para Manila para oferecer Brunei como um tributário da Espanha, para ajudar a recuperar o trono usurpado por seu irmão, Saiful Rijal. Os espanhóis concordaram que, se eles conseguissem conquistar Brunei, Pengiran Seri Lela iria se tornar definitivamente o Sultão, enquanto Pengiran Seri Ratna seria o novo Bendahara. Em março de 1578, a frota espanhola, liderada si mesma por Francisco de Sande, agindo como Capitão-general, começou sua viagem para Brunei. A expedição foi de 400 espanhóis, 1.500 filipinos nativos e 300 nativos de Bornéu. A campanha foi uma das muitas, que também incluía a ações em Mindanau e Sulu.
Os espanhóis conseguiram invadir a capital em 16 de abril de 1578, com a ajuda de Seri Pengiran Lela e Seri Pengiran Ratna. O sultão Saiful Rijal e Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan Abdul Kahar fora forçado a fugir para Meragang então Jerudong. Em Jerudong, fizeram planos para perseguir o exército conquistador longe de Brunei. Os espanhóis sofreram grandes perdas devido à cólera ou o surto de disenteria. Eles foram tão enfraquecidos pela doença que decidiram abandonar Brunei para retornar a Manila em 26 de junho de 1578, depois de apenas 72 dias. Antes de fazer isso, eles queimaram a mesquita, uma estrutura alta, com um teto de cinco níveis.
Pengiran Seri Lela morreu entre agosto e setembro de 1578, provavelmente da mesma doença que afligira seus aliados espanhóis, embora não houvesse suspeita de que ele poderia ter sido envenenado por decisão do sultão. A filha de Seri Lela partiu com o espanhol e passou a se casar com um cristão Tagalog, chamado Agustín de Legazpi de Tondo.
As contas locais de Brunei diferem muito da visão geralmente aceita dos acontecimentos. A Guerra castelhana entrou na consciência nacional como um episódio heroico, com os espanhóis sendo conduzidos por Bendahara Sakam, supostamente uma decisão do irmão do sultão, e mil guerreiros nativos. Esta versão, no entanto, é contestada pela maioria dos historiadores e considerando uma lembrança de um herói folclórico, provavelmente criado décadas ou séculos depois.
Não obstante o recuo, Brunei perdeu uma série de territórios para a Espanha, incluindo a ilha de Luzon.
Mapa da região do Brunei desde 1890
Os britânicos tiveram de intervir nos assuntos de Brunei em um número de ocasiões. A Grã-Bretanha atacou o Brunei em julho 1846, devido a divergências quanto a quem possuía o direito de sultão.
Na década de 1880, como o declínio do Império de Brunei continuava, o Sultão Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin apelou aos britânicos para deter os dirigentes Rajás brancos do vizinho Reino de Sarawak de particionamento e anexação do território de Brunei.
O "Tratado de Proteção" foi negociado por Sir Hugh Low e entrou em vigor em 17 de setembro de 1888. O tratado fez com que o Sultão "não pudesse ceder ou locar qualquer território a potências estrangeiras sem o consentimento britânico"– mas também permitiu a Grã-Bretanha o controle sobre os assuntos externos de Brunei, que se tornou um protetorado britânico. Esse protetorado continuou até 1984.Quando o Reino de Sarawak anexou o distrito Pandaruan de Brunei em 1890, os britânicos não tomar qualquer ação para impedi-lo porque não consideram nem Brunei nem o Reino de Sarawak como "poderes estranho" (pelo Tratado de Proteção) para os britânicos. Essa anexação final por Sarawak deixou Brunei com uma pequena massa de terra corrente e separada em duas partes.
Moradores britânicos foram introduzidos em Brunei sobre Acordo de Abrigo Complementar do protetorado em 1906. Os moradores foram para aconselhar o sultão em todos os assuntos de administração. No entanto, o residente assumiu o controle mais executivo do que o sultão. O sistema Residencial terminou em 1959.
Descoberta do óleo
Em 1929 fora descoberto na região o petróleo por dois homens, F.F. Marriot e T.G. Cochrane, eles descobriram o petróleo perto de Seria, a descoberta ocorreria originalmente dois anos antes, em 1927. Eles informaram um geofísico que enteavam realizando uma pesquisa lá, em 12 de julho de 1928, aconteceu a primeira perfuração. O petróleo foi atingido em 297 metros em 5 de Abril de 1929. A produção de petróleo aumentou consideravelmente na década de 1930. Em 1940, a produção de petróleo estava em mais de seis milhões de barris. Até hoje o poço perfurado na década de 1940 continua a jorrar. A British Malayan Petroleum Company — hoje a atual Brunei Shell Petroleum Company —, foi formada em 22 de julho de 1922.
O primeiro poço extraterritorial foi perfurado em 1957
Brunei officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Malay: Negara Brunei Darussalam, is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea, it is completely surrounded by the state of Sarawak, Malaysia, and it is separated into two parts by the Sarawak district of Limbang. It is the only sovereign state completely on the island of Borneo, with the remainder of the island forming parts of Malaysia and Indonesia. Brunei's population was 401,890 in July 2011.
The official national history claims that Brunei can trace its beginnings to the 7th century, when it was a subject state named P'o-li, in the Sumatra-centric Srivijayan empire. It later became a vassal state of the Java-centric Majapahit empire. Brunei became a sultanate in the 14th century, under a newly converted Islamic sultan—Muhammad Shah.
At the peak of Bruneian Empire, Sultan Bolkiah (reigned 1485–1528) had control over the northern regions of Borneo, including modern-day Sarawak and Sabah, as well as the Sulu archipelago off the northeast tip of Borneo, Seludong (modern day Manila), and the islands off the northwest tip of Borneo. The thalassocracy was visited by Spain's Magellan Expedition in 1521 and fought Spain in 1578's Castille War. The Bruneian Empire began to decline, reaching its modern shape in 1890 after the progressive 19th century ceding of Sarawak to the Kingdom of Sarawak and the ceding of Sabah to the British North Borneo Chartered Company. Brunei became a British protectorate in 1888 and was assigned a British Resident in 1906. After the Japanese occupation during World War II, in 1959 a new constitution was written. In 1962 there was a small armed rebellion against the monarchy which was ended with the help of the British. Brunei regained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984. Economic growth during the 1970s and 1990s, averaging 56% from 1999 to 2008, has transformed Brunei into a newly industrialised country.
Brunei has the second highest Human Development Index among the South East Asia nations after Singapore, and is classified as a developed country. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Brunei is ranked fifth in the world by gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity. The IMF also states in a 2011 estimate that Brunei was one of two countries (the other being Libya) with their public debt at 0% of the national GDP. Forbes also ranks Brunei as the fifth richest nation out of 182 nations due to its extensive petroleum and natural gas fields
Post-World War II
After World War II, a new government was formed in Brunei under the British Military Administration (BMA). It consisted mainly of Australian officers and servicemen. The administration of Brunei was handed over to the Civil Administration on 6 July 1945. The Brunei State Council was also revived that year. The BMA was also tasked to revive the Bruneian economy, which was extensively damaged by the Japanese during their occupation. They were also tasked with putting out the fires started on the wells of Seria, which were started by the Japanese prior to their defeat. Before 1941, the Governor of the Straits Settlements based in Singapore was responsible for the duties of British High Commissioner for Brunei, Sarawak, and North Borneo (now Sabah). The first British High Commissioner for Brunei was the Governor of Sarawak, Sir Charles Ardon Clarke. The Barisan Pemuda (“Youth Movement”) (abbreviated as BARIP) was the first political party to be formed in Brunei. It was formed on 12 April 1946. The aims of the party were to “preserve the sovereignty of the Sultan and the country, and to defend the rights of the Malays.” BARIP also contributed to the formation of the country’s National Anthem. The party was dissolved in 1948 due to inactivity.
In 1959, a new constitution was written declaring Brunei a self-governing state, while its foreign affairs, security, and defense remained the responsibility of the United Kingdom. There was a small rebellion against the monarchy in 1962, which was suppressed with help from the United Kingdom. This event became known as the Brunei Revolt and was partly responsible for the failure to create the North Borneo Federation. The rebellion partially affected Brunei's decision to opt out of the Malaysian Federation.
Brunei gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984. The official National Day, which celebrates the country's independence, however, is held on 23 February due to tradition.
Writing of the Constitution
In July 1953, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III formed a seven-member committee named Tujuh Serangkai to find out the citizens’ views regarding a written constitution for Brunei. In May 1954, a meeting attended by the Sultan, the Resident and the High Commissioner was held to discuss the findings of the committee. In March 1959 Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III led a delegation to London to discuss the proposed Constitution. The British delegation was led by Sir Alan Lennox-Boyd who was the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The British Government later accepted the draft constitution. On 29 September 1959, the Constitution Agreement was signed in Bandar Seri Begawan. The agreement was signed by Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III and Sir Robert Scott, the Commissioner-General for Southeast Asia. Some of the points of the constitution were:
The Sultan was made the Supreme Head of State.
Brunei was responsible for its internal administration.
The British Government was now responsible for foreign and defence affairs only.
The post of Resident was abolished and replaced by a British High Commissioner.
Five councils were also set up:
The Executive Council
The Legislative Council of Brunei
The Privy Council
The Council of Succession
The State Religious Council
The National Development Plans
A series of National Development Plans were initiated by the 28th Sultan of Brunei, Omar Ali Saifuddien III.
The First National Development plan was introduced in 1953. A total sum of B$100 million was approved by the Brunei State Council for the plan. E.R. Bevington from the Colonial Office in Fiji. A $US14 million Gas Plant was built under the plan. In 1954, survey and exploration work were undertaken by the Brunei Shell Petroleum on both offshore and onshore fields. By 1956, production reached 114,700 bpd. Developments on education were also made. In 1952, a written policy on education was made. By 1958, expenditure on education totaled at $4 million. Communications were also improved with new roads built and reconstruction works at Berakas Airport being completed at 1954.
The second National Development Plan was launched in 1962. A major oil and gas field was discovered in 1963, with this discovery, Liquefied Natural Gas became important. Developments in the oil and gas sector have continued actively and oil production has steadily increased since then.The plan also saw an increase of production of meat and eggs. The fishing industry increased its output by 25% throughout the course of the plan. The deepwater port at Muara was also constructed under the plan. Power requirements were met and studies were made to provide electricity to rural areas. Efforts were made to eradicate malaria, with the help of the World Health Organisation, under the plan. Efforts were successful, bringing down the cases of malaria from 300 cases in 1953 to only 66 cases in 1959. The death rate was also brought down from 20 per thousand in 1947 to 11.3 per thousand in 1953. This has been attributed to public sanitation and improvement of drainage and the provision of piped pure water to the population.
Politics and government
Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of Brunei.
The political system in the country is governed by the constitution and the tradition of the Malay Islamic Monarchy, the concept of "Melayu Islam Beraja" (MIB). The three components of MIB cover Malay culture, Islamic religion and the political framework under the monarchy. It has a legal system based on English common law, although Islamic shariah law supersedes this in some cases.
Under Brunei's 1959 constitution, His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah is the head of state with full executive authority, including emergency powers which are renewed every two years, since 1962. The Sultan's role is enshrined in the national ideology known as Melayu Islam Beraja (MIB), or Malay Muslim Monarchy. The country has been under hypothetical martial law since the Brunei Revolt of 1962. Hassanal Bolkiah is also the state's Prime Minister, Finance Minister and Defence Minister. The Royal family retains a venerated status within the country. The country also has its own parliament.
Embassy of Brunei in Moscow, Russia.
With its traditional ties with the United Kingdom, it became the 49th member of the Commonwealth immediately on the day of its independence on 1 January 1984. As its first initiatives toward improved regional relations, Brunei joined ASEAN on 7 January 1984, becoming the sixth member. It later joined the United Nations at the 39th Session of the United Nations General Assembly and became a full member on 21 September 1984 as a means to achieve recognition of its sovereignty and full independence from the world community. As it is an Islamic country, Brunei became a full member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) in January 1984 at the Fourth Islamic Summit held in Morocco.
After its accession to the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) in 1989, Brunei hosted the APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting in November 2000 and the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in July 2002. As for other economic ties, Brunei became an original member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) since it came into force in 1 January 1995, and is a major player in BIMP-EAGA which was formed during the Inaugural Ministers' Meeting in Davao, Philippines on 24 March 1994.
Brunei is recognised by every nation in the world. It shares a close relationship particularly with the Philippines and other nations such as Singapore. In April 2009, Brunei and the Philippines signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that seeks to strengthen the bilateral cooperation of the two countries in the fields of agriculture and farm-related trade and investments.
Brunei is one of many nations to lay claim to some of the disputed Spratly Islands. The status of Limbang as part of Sarawak was disputed by Brunei since the area was first annexed in 1890. The issue was reportedly settled in 2009, with Brunei agreeing to accept the border in exchange for Malaysia giving up claims to oil fields in Bruneian waters. The government, however, denies this and says that their claim on Limbang was never dropped.
In the absence of any other evidence, scholars have created an early history of Brunei that is mainly based on flexible interpretations of Chinese texts. This early part reads: Chinese records from the sixth century mention a state called P’o-li on the northwest coast of Borneo. In the seventh century, Chinese and Arab accounts state a place called Vijayapura, which was thought to be founded by members of the royal family of Funan. They were believed to have landed on the northwest coast of Borneo with some of their followers. They then captured P’o-li and renamed the territory 'Vijayapura' (meaning 'victory' in Sanskrit). In 977, Chinese records started to use Po-ni instead of Vijayapura to refer to Brunei. In 1225 a Chinese official named Chua Ju-Kua reported that Brunei has 100 warships to protect its trade and that there was a lot of gold in the kingdom. Another report in 1280 described Po-ni as controlling large parts of Borneo Island (modern day Sabah and Sarawak, Sulu and some parts of the Philippines).
In the fourteenth century, Po-ni became a vassal state of Majapahit, and had to pay an annual payment of 40 katis of camphor. Po-ni was attacked and looted of its treasure and gold by the Sulus in 1369. A fleet from Majapahit succeeded in driving away the Sulus but Po-ni became much weaker after the attack. A Chinese report of 1371 described Po-ni as poor and totally controlled by Majapahit. The power of the Sultanate of Brunei was at its peak between the 15th and 17th centuries, with its power extending from northern Borneo to the southern Philippines./ By the 16th century, Islam was firmly rooted in Brunei, and the country had built one of its biggest mosques. In 1578, Alonso Beltrán, a Spanish traveler described it as being five stories tall and built on the water.
War with Spain and decline
European influence gradually brought an end to the regional power, as Brunei entered a period of decline compounded by internal strife over royal succession. Piracy was also detrimental to the kingdom. Spain declared war in 1578, attacking and capturing Brunei's capital at the time, Kota Batu. This was achieved as a result in part of the assistance rendered to them by two Bruneian noblemen, Pengiran Seri Lela and Pengiran Seri Ratna. The former had travelled to Manila to offer Brunei as a tributary of Spain for help to recover the throne usurped by his brother, Saiful Rijal. The Spanish agreed that if they succeeded in conquering Brunei, Pengiran Seri Lela would indeed become the Sultan, while Pengiran Seri Ratna would be the new Bendahara. In March 1578, the Spanish fleet, led by De Sande himself, acting as Capitán-General, started their journey towards Brunei. The expedition consisted of 400 Spaniards, 1,500 Filipino natives and 300 Borneans. The campaign was one of many, which also included action in Mindanao and Sulu.
The Spanish succeeded in invading the capital on 16 April 1578, with the help of Pengiran Seri Lela and Pengiran Seri Ratna. The Sultan Saiful Rijal and Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan Abdul Kahar were forced to flee to Meragang then to Jerudong. In Jerudong, they made plans to chase the conquering army away from Brunei. The Spanish suffered heavy losses due to a cholera or dysentery outbreak.They were so weakened by the illness that they decided to abandon Brunei to return to Manila on 26 June 1578, after just 72 days. Before doing so, they burned the mosque, a high structure with a five-tier roof.
Pengiran Seri Lela died in August–September 1578, probably from the same illness that had afflicted his Spanish allies, although there was suspicion he could have been poisoned by the ruling Sultan. Seri Lela's daughter left with the Spanish and went on to marry a Christian Tagalog, named Agustín de Legazpi de Tondo.
The local Brunei accounts differ greatly from the generally accepted view of events. The Castilian War entering the national conscience as a heroic episode, with the Spaniards being driven out by Bendahara Sakam, supposedly a brother of the ruling Sultan, and a thousand native warriors. This version, nevertheless, is disputed by most historians and considered a folk-hero recollection, probably created decades or centuries after. The country experienced a civil war from 1660 to 1673.
The British have intervened in the affairs of Brunei on a number of occasions. Britain attacked Brunei on July 1846 due to disagreement as to who was the rightful Sultan.
In the 1880s, as the decline of the Bruneian Empire continued, and Brunei lost much of its territory to the ruling White Rajahs of the neighbouring Kingdom of Sarawak. Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin appealed to the British to stop further encroachment. The "Treaty of Protection" was negotiated by Sir Hugh Low and signed into effect on 17 September 1888. The treaty did state that the Sultan "could not cede or lease any territory to foreign powers without British consent" – but it also enabled Britain's control over Brunei's external affairs and made it a British protectorate (which continued until 1984). When the Kingdom of Sarawak annexed Brunei's Pandaruan district in 1890, the British did not take any action to stop it, as they did not regard either Brunei or the Kingdom of Sarawak as 'foreign' (per the Treaty of Protection). This final annexation by Sarawak left Brunei with its current small land mass and separation into two parts.
British Residents were introduced in Brunei under the Supplementary Protectorate Agreement in 1906. The Residents were to advise the Sultan on all matters of administration. However, the Resident assumed more executive control than the Sultan. The Residential system ended in 1959.
Discovery of oil
Petroleum was discovered in 1929 after several fruitless attempts. Two men, F.F. Marriot and T.G. Cochrane, smelled oil near the Seria river in late 1926.They informed a geophysicist who then conducted a survey there. In 1927, gas seepages were reported in the area. Seria Well Number One (S-1) was drilled on 12 July 1928. Oil was struck at 297 meters on 5 April 1929. Seria Well Number 2 was drilled on 19 August 1929 and is still producing oil to this date. Oil production increased considerably in the 1930s. In 1940, oil production was at more than six million barrels. The British Malayan Petroleum Company (now Brunei Shell Petroleum Company) was formed on 22 July 1922. The first offshore well was drilled in 1957.
The Japanese invaded Brunei on 16 December 1941, eight days after the attack on Pearl Harbour. They landed 10,000 troops of the Kawaguchi Detachment from Cam Ranh Bay at Kuala Belait. After six days fighting they occupied the entire country. The only Allied troops in the area were the 2nd Battalion of the 15th Punjab Regiment based at Kuching, Sarawak.
Once the Japanese occupied Brunei they made an agreement with Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin over governing the country. Inche Ibrahim (known later as Pehin Datu Perdana Menteri Dato Laila Utama Awang Haji Ibrahim), a former Secretary to the British Resident, Ernest Edgar Pengilly, was appointed Chief Administrative Officer under the Japanese Governor. The Japanese had proposed that Pengilly retain his position under their administration but he declined. Both he and other British nationals still in Brunei were then interned by the Japanese at Batu Lintang camp in Sarawak. Ibrahim, while the British officials were under Japanese guard, made a point of personally shaking each one by the hand and wishing them well.
The Sultan retained his throne and was given a pension and honours by the Japanese. During the later part of the occupation he resided at Tantuya, Limbang and had little more to do with the Japanese. Most of the Malay government officers were retained by the Japanese. Brunei's administration was reorganised into five prefectures, which included British North Borneo. The Prefectures included Baram, Labuan, Lawas, and Limbang. Ibrahim managed to hide a number of significant documents from the Japanese during the occupation. Pengiran Yusuf (later YAM Pengiran Setia Negara Pengiran Haji Mohd Yusuf) along with other Bruneian's were sent to Japan for training. Yusuf was fortunate to survive as he was in Hiroshima when the atomic bomb was dropped.
The British had anticipated a Japanese attack, but lacked the resources to defend the area because of the war in Europe. The troops from the Punjab Regiment filled in the Seria oilfield oilwells with concrete in September 1941 to deny the Japanese their use. The remaining equipment and installations were destroyed when the Japanese invaded Malaya. By the end of the war 16 wells at Miri and Seria had been restarted, with production reaching about half the pre-war level. Coal production at Muara was also recommenced, but with little success.
Major-General Wootton of the Australian 9th Division with Lieutenant-General Masao Baba of the Japanese 37th Division at the surrender ceremony at Labuan on 10 September 1945
The Japanese language was taught in schools and Government officers were also required to learn Japanese. The local currency was replaced by what was to become known as duit pisang(banana money). From 1943 hyper-inflation destroyed the currency's value and at the end of the war this currency was worthless. Allied attacks on shipping eventually caused trade to cease with food and medicine falling into short supply. Famine and disease followed.
The airport runway was constructed by the Japanese during the occupation and in 1943 Japanese naval units were based in Brunei Bay and Labuan. The naval base was destroyed by Allied bombing, however despite being attacked by the Allies towards the end of the war the runway survived and was turned into a proper airport. In 1944 the Allies began a bombing campaign against the occupying Japanese that destroyed much of the town and Kuala Belait, but missed Kampong Ayer.
On 10 June 1945 the Australian 9th Division landed at Muara under Operation Oboe Six to recapture Borneo from the Japanese. They were supported by American air and naval units. Brunei town was bombed extensively and recaptured after three days of heavy fighting. Many buildings were destroyed including the Mosque. The Japanese forces in Brunei, Borneo, and Sarawak, under Lieutenant-General Masao Baba, formally surrendered at Labuan on 10 September 1945. The British Military Administration took over from the Japanese and remained until July 1946.
El jefe de Brunéi fue muy poderoso entre los siglos XIV y XVI. Su reino cubría toda la isla de Borneo y el sudoeste de las Filipinas. La influencia europea fue debilitando gradualmente este poder regional.La Guerra de Castilla se inicia el 14 de abril de 1578 los españoles ocuparon la capital de Brunéi y a continuación conquistaron, el 16 de abril de 1578, Pengiran Seri Lela y Pengiran Seri Ratna, durando la ocupación de Brunéi 72 días. A causa de las enfermedades después de 72 días de ocupación y de haber saqueado a conciencia la capital, el ejército español abandono Brunéi
El ocaso del imperio bruneano culminó en el siglo XIX cuando Brunéi perdió la mayoría de su territorio en favor de los Rajás Blancos de Sarawak, resultando en su pequeña masa de tierra actual y la separación en dos partes. Brunéi fue un protectorado británico de 1888 a 1984.
Hubo una pequeña rebelión contra la monarquía durante los años 1960, que fue sofocada por el Reino Unido. Este acontecimiento se conoció como la Revuelta de Brunéi y fue parcialmente responsable del fracaso de crear la Federación de Borneo del Norte. La rebelión también afectó la decisión de Brunéi de no participar en la Federación malaya y fue la primera etapa de la confrontación indonesio-malaya.
Referência para busca:
Brunei ásia malaio islamismo budismo
Fotos de Brunei.