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Zâmbia

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Zâmbia



DADOS PRINCIPAIS:
Nome oficial: República de Zâmbia (Republic of Zambia).
Nacionalidade: zambiana.
Data nacional: 24 de outubro (Independência).
Capital: Lusaka.
Cidades principais: Lusaka (982.362), Ndola (376.311), Kitwe (338.207), Kabwe (166.519), Chingola (162.954), Mufulira (152.944) (1990).
Idioma: inglês (oficial), línguas regionais (principais: nianja, bemba, tonga).
Religião: cristianismo 72% (protestantes 34,2%, católicos 26,2%, adeptos de religiões cristãs africanas 8,3%, outros cristãos 3,3%), crenças tradicionais 27%, islamismo 0,3%, outras 0,7% (1980).

GEOGRAFIA:
Localização: sul da África.
Hora local: + 5h.
Área: 752.614 km2.
Clima: tropical.
Área de floresta: 314 mil km2 (1995).

POPULAÇÃO:
Total: 9,2 milhões (2000), sendo bembas 36,2%, nianjas 17,6%, tongas 15,1%, rotses 8,2%, mambuês 4,6%, tumbucas 4,6%, outros 13,7% (1980).
Densidade: 12,22 hab./km2.
População urbana: 39% (1998).
População rural: 61% (1998).
Crescimento demográfico: 2,3% ao ano (1995-2000).
Fecundidade: 5,55 filhos por mulher (1995-2000
Expectativa de vida M/F: 39,5/41 anos (1995-2000).
Mortalidade infantil: 82 por mil nascimentos (1995-2000).
Analfabetismo: 22% (2000).
IDH (0-1): 0,420 (1998).

POLÍTICA:
Forma de governo: República presidencialista.
Divisão administrativa: 9 províncias.
Principais partidos: Movimento pela Democracia Multipartidária (MMD), Nacional (NP).
Legislativo: unicameral - Assembléia Nacional, com 150 membros eleitos por voto direto para mandato de 5 anos.
Constituição em vigor: 1996.

ECONOMIA:
Moeda: cuacha zambiana.
PIB: US$ 3,3 bilhões (1998).
PIB agropecuária: 17% (1998).
PIB indústria: 26% (1998).
PIB serviços: 57% (1998).
Crescimento do PIB: 1% ao ano (1990-1998).
Renda per capita: US$ 330 (1998).
Força de trabalho: 4 milhões (1998).
Agricultura: milho, mandioca, milhete, sorgo.
Pecuária: bovinos, caprinos, aves.
Pesca: 70,7 mil t (1997).
Mineração: cobre, cobalto.
Indústria: metalúrgica (cobre), automobilística, refino de petróleo, alimentícia (enlatados), têxtil, materiais de construção (tijolos), armamentista (explosivos).
Exportações: US$ 740 milhões (1998).
Importações: US$ 760 milhões (1998).
Principais parceiros comerciais: Botsuana, Lesoto, Namíbia, África do Sul, Suazilândia, Reino Unido, EUA, Alemanha, Japão.

DEFESA:
Efetivo total: 21,6 mil (1998).
Gastos: US$ 63 milhões (1998).

RELAÇÕES EXTERIORES:
Organizações: Banco Mundial, Comunidade Britânica, FMI, OMC, ONU, OUA, SADC.
Embaixada: Tel. (202) 265-9717 - Washington D.C., EUA. - Não há embaixada no Brasil.



A Zâmbia (em inglês: Zambia AFI: [ˈzæmbɪə]), oficialmente conhecida como República da Zâmbia, é um país sem costa marítima da África austral. É limitada a norte pela República Democrática do Congo e pela Tanzânia, a leste pelo Malawi, a sul por Moçambique, pelo Zimbábue e pela Namíbia, e a oeste por Angola. Sua capital é Lusaka, localizada no sudeste do país.

É membro da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU), da União Africana (UA), da Comunidade para o Desenvolvimento da África Austral (SADC) e da Commonwealth.

História


A região onde hoje se situa o território zambiano recebe influência ocidental em meados do século XIX, primeiramente com a cobiça portuguesa, que queria que o atual território zambiano fosse integrado as suas possessões de Angola e Moçambique, contudo devido a pressão britânica, os planos lusitanos foram cancelados, com isso a chegada de missionários e exploradores britânicos, como David Livingstone e Cecil Rhodes a presença inglesa foi garantida. Este obtém licença para a exploração mineral no território, onde, em 1888, são fundadas as colônias britânicas da Rodésia do Norte (correspondente à Zâmbia de hoje) e da Rodésia do Sul (hoje o Zimbabwe). A Rodésia do Norte é administrada pela Companhia Britânica da África do Sul até 1924, quando passa a ser um protetorado do Reino Unido. Colonos britânicos instalam-se no período anterior à Segunda Guerra Mundial. Em 1960, a minoria branca chega a cerca de 5% da população. Em 1953, as duas Rodésias fundem-se com a colônia britânica de Niassalândia (atual Malauí) e formam a Federação da Rodésia e Niassalândia, sob a tutela britânica.

Em 1963, a federação é dissolvida. No ano seguinte, a Rodésia do Norte torna-se independente com o nome de Zâmbia, sob a presidência de Kenneth Kaunda, da União Nacional da Independência (o partido único). Kaunda convence os colonos brancos a não emigrar, como ocorrera na maior parte das ex-colônias europeias na África. Em 1973, o país fecha as fronteiras com a Rodésia do Sul, em protesto contra o regime racista de Ian Smith. Em 1979, comandos da Rodésia destroem em Lusaka o quartel-general do movimento guerrilheiro União Africana do Povo do Zimbábue (Zapu), que combate o regime branco rodesiano com o apoio do governo zambiano. Em 1982, as medidas de austeridade econômica3 levam a uma greve geral contra Kaunda. A crise agrava-se com a queda internacional do preço do cobre.

Kaunda é reeleito várias vezes e fica na Presidência até 1991. Durante o seu governo, em 1987, o país rompe com o FMI. O agravamento da crise econômica obriga Kaunda a fazer concessões políticas. As eleições de 1991 resultam na vitória do Movimento pela Democracia Multipartidária (MMD), cujo líder, Frederick Chiluba, se torna presidente. O novo governo, porém, não consegue resolver a crise.

Em 1993, Chiluba decreta o estado de emergência (revogado no final do ano) para conter uma campanha de desobediência civil dos partidários de Kaunda contra as reformas estruturais. Um acordo com o FMI, em 1993, leva à privatização de estatais, ao aumento do desemprego e à insatisfação popular.

Em 1994, Chiluba faz uma troca de dez de seus ministros, acusados de tráfico de drogas. Em maio de 1996 apóia emenda constitucional determinando que só zambianos de mais de duas gerações podem concorrer à Presidência. A emenda é inserida para impedir a candidatura do ex-presidente Kaunda, filho de malauianos. Em novembro, Chiluba é reeleito.

Em 1997, o governo debela uma tentativa de golpe de Estado liderada por militares rebeldes e decreta estado de emergência (suspenso em março de 1998). O ex-presidente Kenneth Kaunda, detido sob acusação de participar do golpe, é libertado em junho de 1998.

Em 2001 Levy Mwanawasa do MMD ganha as eleições.4

Geografia





Victoria Falls.
Situada no centro-sul da África, a Zâmbia abriga as famosas cataratas de Vitória (Victoria Falls), no rio Zambeze, que formam uma cortina de água de cerca de 90 m de altura, na divisa com o Zimbábue. A maior parte de seu território é coberta por savanas.

Parques nacionais abrigam grande variedade de animais, sobretudo próximo aos rios Luangwa e Kafue. Um grande planalto predomina na porção leste e atinge o ponto mais alto no altiplano no Monte Nyika (2.606 m). A população, dividida em cerca de 70 etnias, concentra-se nas regiões de extração de cobre, ao norte da capital, Lusaka. A Zâmbia está entre os maiores produtores mundiais desse minério, responsável por 50% das exportações do país, em 1998. Possui ainda reservas de cobalto, zinco e chumbo. A agricultura, que ocupa 73,7% da força de trabalho, também é economicamente importante.

Clima

O clima da Zâmbia é tropical e amenizado pela altitude. De acordo com a classificação climática de Kouppen-Gayger, a maior parte do país é classificada como úmido tropical ou subtropical úmido e seco, com pequenos tempos de clima semiárido e estepes do sudoeste ao longo da Vale do Zambeze.

Há duas estações principais: a estação chuvosa (de novembro a abril) para o verão, e a estação seca (de maio a outubro), correspondente ao inverno. A estação seca está subdividida em duas: a estação fria e seca (maio/junho a agosto) e a estação quente e seca (setembro a outubro/novembro). A influência da altura suavizada dá ao país um clima subtropical agradável, em vez de condições tropicais durante a estação fria, de maio a agosto. No entanto, as temperaturas médias mensais permanecem acima dos 20 °C na maior parte do país durante oito ou mais meses.


Economia




Cena urbana em Lusaka, a capital do país.
A economia da Zâmbia depende largamente do cobre, minério de que é um dos maiores produtores do mundo, e que representa 90% do valor das exportações. Este país pertence ao chamado "cinturão do cobre", uma extensão dos depósitos de Shaba (RDC).

A agricultura é de subsistência (batata, amendoim, milho, mandioca e milheto), mas também apresenta culturas caráter comercial (algodão, café, cana-de-açúcar, tabaco). Em lagos e rios é praticada a pesca, principalmente de subsistência.

Dentro do setor industrial, contam-se o tratamento de minerais (refinação de cobre, em especial), produção de cimento e indústrias conexas da agricultura (óleos vegetais, tratamento do algodão, açúcar e e outros produtos). O petróleo é importado, principalmente através do porto de Dar es Salaam (Tanzânia).

O turismo internacional, buscando áreas naturais do país (cataratas, safári) é uma importante fonte de renda.





Zambia /ˈzæmbiə/, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in southern Africa. The neighbouring countries are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west. The capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of the country. The population is concentrated mainly around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the northwest.

Originally inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region which comprises modern Zambia was colonised during the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. After visits by European explorers in the eighteenth century, Zambia became the British protectorate of Northern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century. For most of the colonial period, the country was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company.

On 24 October 1964, the country became independent of the United Kingdom and then-prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party (UNIP) maintained power from the 1964 until 1991. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a single-party state with the UNIP as the sole-legal political party, with the goal of uniting the nation under the banner of 'One Zambia, One Nation'. Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, during which the country saw a rise in social-economic growth and increased decentralisation of government. Chiluba selected Levy Mwanawasa as his successor; Mwanawasa presided over the country from January 2002 until his death in August 2008, and is credited with initiating a campaign to reduce corruption and increase the standard of living. After Mwanawasa's death, Rupiah Banda presided as Acting President before being elected president in 2008. He is the shortest serving president, having held office for only three years. Patriotic Front party leader, Michael Chilufya Sata defeated Banda in the 2011 elections.

In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries. The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) is headquartered in Lusaka.


Etymology

Further information: Rhodesia

The territory of what is now Zambia was known as Northern Rhodesia from 1911. It was renamed Zambia on the occasion of its independence, in 1964. The new name of Zambia was derived from the Zambezi river (Zambezi may mean "God's river")[citation needed] which flows through the western region of the country and forms its southern border.

History

Main article: History of Zambia

Pre-colonial

The area of modern Zambia was inhabited by Khoisan hunter-gatherers until around AD 300, when the more technologically advanced migrating Bantu began to displace or absorb them.[6] In the 12th century, major waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants arrived during the Bantu expansion. Among them, the Tonga people (also called Ba-Tonga, "Ba-" meaning "men") were the first to settle in Zambia and are believed to have come from the east near the "big sea".

The Nkoya people also arrived early in the expansion, coming from the Luba–Lunda kingdoms located in the southern parts of the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo and northern Angola, followed by a much larger influx, especially between the late 12th and early 13th centuries. In the early 19th century, the Nsokolo people settled in the Mbala district of Northern Province. During the 19th century, the Ngoni and Sotho peoples arrived from the south. By the late 19th century, most of the various peoples of Zambia were established in the areas they currently occupy. The arrival of Europeans was just yet another such influx.





A statue of Scottish explorer David Livingstone on the Zambian side of Victoria Falls.
The earliest European to visit the area was Portuguese explorer Francisco de Lacerda in the late 18th century. This territory, located between Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Angola was claimed and explored by Portugal in that period. Other European visitors followed in the 19th century. The most prominent of these was David Livingstone, who had a vision of ending the slave trade through the "3 Cs" (Christianity, Commerce and Civilization).

He was the first European to see the magnificent waterfall on the Zambezi River in 1855, naming them "Victoria Falls" after Queen Victoria – he described them thus: "Scenes so lovely must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight". Locally the falls are known as "Mosi-o-Tunya" or "(the) thundering smoke" (in the Lozi or Kololo dialect). The town of Livingstone, near the Falls, is named after him. Highly publicised accounts of his journeys motivated a wave of European visitors, missionaries and traders after his death in 1873.

Northern Rhodesia





Cecil Rhodes.
In 1888, the British South Africa Company (BSA Company), led by Cecil Rhodes, obtained mineral rights from the Litunga, the Paramount Chief of the Lozi or Ba-rotse for the area which later became North-Western Rhodesia. To the east, in December 1897 a section of the Angoni or Ngoni (originally from Zululand) under Tsinco, the son of King Mpezeni, rebelled, but the rebellion was put down, and Mpezeni accepted the Pax Britannica. That part of the country then came to be known as North-Eastern Rhodesia. In 1895, Rhodes asked his American scout Frederick Russell Burnham to look for minerals and ways to improve river navigation in the region, and it was during this trek that Burnham discovered major copper deposits along the Kafue River.

North-Eastern Rhodesia and North-Western Rhodesia were administered as separate units until 1911 when they were merged to form the British Colony of Northern Rhodesia. In 1923, the BSA Company ceded control of Northern Rhodesia to the British Government after the government decided not to renew the Company's charter.

That same year, Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), a conquered territory which was also administered by the BSA Company, became a self-governing British Dominion. In 1924, after negotiations, administration of Northern Rhodesia transferred to the British Colonial Office. In 1953, the creation of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland grouped together Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland (now Malawi) as a single semi-autonomous region. This was undertaken despite opposition from a sizeable minority of the population, who demonstrated against it in 1960–61. Northern Rhodesia was the centre of much of the turmoil and crisis characterising the federation in its last years. Initially, Harry Nkumbula's African National Congress (ANC) led the campaign that Kenneth Kaunda's United National Independence Party (UNIP) subsequently took up.

A two-stage election held in October and December 1962 resulted in an African majority in the legislative council and an uneasy coalition between the two African nationalist parties. The council passed resolutions calling for Northern Rhodesia's secession from the federation and demanding full internal self-government under a new constitution and a new National Assembly based on a broader, more democratic franchise. The federation was dissolved on 31 December 1963, and in January 1964, Kaunda won the first and only election for Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia. The Colonial Governor, Sir Evelyn Hone, was very close to Kaunda and urged him to stand for the post. Soon after, there was an uprising in the north of the country known as the Lumpa Uprising led by Alice Lenshina – Kaunda's first internal conflict as leader of the nation.

Post-Independencer

Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia on 24 October 1964, with Kaunda as the first president. At independence, despite its considerable mineral wealth, Zambia faced major challenges. Domestically, there were few trained and educated Zambians capable of running the government, and the economy was largely dependent on foreign expertise. This expertise was provided in part by John Willson CMG There were over 70,000 British in Zambia in 1964, who were of great economic importance.

Kaunda's support for the insurgents attacking neighbouring Rhodesia, and the setting up of training camps for them in Zambia resulted in cross-border raids in both directions, leading to the closure of the border with Rhodesia in 1973 and severe problems with international transport and power supply. However, the Kariba hydroelectric station on the Zambezi River provided sufficient capacity to satisfy the country's requirements for electricity (despite the fact that the control centre was on the Rhodesian side of the border). A railway to the Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam, built with Chinese assistance, reduced Zambian dependence on railway lines south to South Africa and west through an increasingly troubled Angola. Until the completion of the railway, however, Zambia's major artery for imports and the critical export of copper was along the TanZam Road, running from Zambia to the port cities in Tanzania. The Tazama oil pipeline was also built from Dar es Salaam to Ndola in Zambia.

By the late 1970s, Mozambique and Angola had attained independence from Portugal. Zimbabwe achieved independence in 1980 in accordance with the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. Zambia's problems, however, were not solved. Civil war in the former Portuguese colonies created an influx of refugees and caused continuing transportation problems. The Benguela railway, which extended west through Angola, was essentially closed to traffic from Zambia by the late 1970s. Zambia's strong support for the ANC (despite both the Zambian ANC and the SA ANC being banned within Zambia), which had its external headquarters in Lusaka, created security problems as South Africa raided South African ANC military training camps in Zambia.

In the mid-1970s, the price of copper, Zambia's principal export, suffered a severe decline worldwide. In Zambia's situation, the cost of transporting the copper great distances to market was an additional strain. Zambia turned to foreign and international lenders for relief, but, as copper prices remained depressed, it became increasingly difficult to service its growing debt, particularly as much aid was syphoned off into Swiss bank accounts. By the mid-1990s, despite limited debt relief, Zambia's per capita foreign debt remained among the highest in the world.





Mwata Kazembe XVII Paul Kanyembo Lutaba, chief of the Lunda people in Zambia in 1961.
In June 1990 riots against Kaunda accelerated. Many protesters were killed by the regime in breakthrough June 1990 protests. In 1990 Kaunda survived an attempted coup, and in 1991 he agreed to re-instate multiparty democracy (having instituted one party rule under the Chona Commission of 1972) and following multiparty elections Kaunda was removed from office (see below).

In the 2000s, the economy stabilised, attaining single-digit inflation in 2006–2007, real GDP growth, decreasing interest rates, and increasing levels of trade. Much of its growth is due to foreign investment in Zambia's mining sector and higher copper prices on the world market. All this led to Zambia being courted enthusiastically by aid donors, and saw a surge in investor confidence in the country.

Politics


Zambian politics take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Zambia is both head of state and head of government in a pluriform multi-party system. The government exercises executive power, while legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. Zambia became a republic immediately upon attaining independence in October 1964. Zambia's current president is H.E. Michael C. Sata.

Subdivisions

Main article: Subdivisions of Zambia

Zambia is divided into ten provinces, each administered by an appointed deputy minister. Each province is subdivided into several districts with a grand total of 72 districts. The provinces are (Muchinga Province created in 2011 isn't included):

victoria Falls is by some measures the largest waterfall in the world, being twice as wide and one and a half times as high as the Niagara Falls
See also: List of settlements in Zambia

Zambia is a landlocked country in southern Africa, with a tropical climate and consists mostly of high plateau, with some hills and mountains, dissected by river valleys. At 752,614 km2 (290,586 sq mi) it is the 39th-largest country in the world (after Chile) and slightly larger than the US state of Texas. The country lies mostly between latitudes 8° and 18°S, and longitudes 22° and 34°E.

Zambia is drained by two major river basins: the Zambezi/Kafue basin in the centre, west and south covering about three-quarters of the country; and the Congo basin in the north covering about one-quarter of the country. A very small area in the northeast forms part of the internal drainage basin of Lake Rukwa in Tanzania.

In the Zambezi basin, there are a number of major rivers flowing wholly or partially through Zambia: the Kabompo, Lungwebungu, Kafue, Luangwa, and the Zambezi itself, which flows through the country in the west and then forms its southern border with Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe. Its source is in Zambia but it diverts into Angola, and a number of its tributaries rise in Angola's central highlands. The edge of the Cuando River floodplain (not its main channel) forms Zambia's southwestern border, and via the Chobe River that river contributes very little water to the Zambezi because most is lost by evaporation.

Two of the Zambezi's longest and largest tributaries, the Kafue and the Luangwa, flow mainly in Zambia. Their confluences with the Zambezi are on the border with Zimbabwe at Chirundu and Luangwa town respectively. Before its confluence, the Luangwa River forms part of Zambia's border with Mozambique. From Luangwa town, the Zambezi leaves Zambia and flows into Mozambique, and eventually into the Mozambique Channel.

The Zambezi falls about 100 metres (328 ft) over the 1.6 km (0.99 mi) wide Victoria Falls, located in the south-west corner of the country, subsequently flowing into Lake Kariba. The Zambezi valley, running along the southern border, is both deep and wide. From Lake Kariba going east it is formed by grabens and like the Luangwa, Mweru-Luapula, Mweru-wa-Ntipa and Lake Tanganyika valleys, is a rift valley.







The north of Zambia is very flat with broad plains. In the west the most notable being the Barotse Floodplain on the Zambezi, which floods from December to June, lagging behind the annual rainy season (typically November to April). The flood dominates the natural environment and the lives, society and culture of the inhabitants and those of other smaller, floodplains throughout the country.

In Eastern Zambia the plateau which extends between the Zambezi and Lake Tanganyika valleys is tilted upwards to the north, and so rises imperceptibly from about 900 m (2,953 ft) in the south to 1,200 m (3,937 ft) in the centre, reaching 1,800 m (5,906 ft) in the north near Mbala. These plateau areas of northern Zambia have been categorised by the World Wildlife Fund as a large section of the Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands ecoregion.

Eastern Zambia shows great diversity. The Luangwa Valley splits the plateau in a curve north east to south west, extended west into the heart of the plateau by the deep valley of the Lunsemfwa River. Hills and mountains are found by the side of some sections of the valley, notably in its north-east the Nyika Plateau (2,200 m or 7,218 ft) on the Malawi border, which extend into Zambia as the Mafinga Hills, containing the country's highest point, Kongera (2,187 m or 7,175 ft). The Muchinga Mountains, the watershed between the Zambezi and Congo drainage basins, run parallel to the deep valley of the Luangwa River and form a sharp backdrop to its northern edge, although they are almost everywhere below 1,700 m (5,577 ft). Their culminating peak Mumpu is at the western end and at 1,892 m (6,207 ft) is the highest point in Zambia away from the eastern border region. The border of the Congo Pedicle was drawn around this mountain.

The southernmost headstream of the Congo River rises in Zambia and flows west through its northern area firstly as the Chambeshi and then, after the Bangweulu Swamps as the Luapula, which forms part of the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Luapula flows south then west before it turns north until it enters Lake Mweru. The lake's other major tributary is the Kalungwishi River, which flows into it from the east. The Luvua River drains Lake Mweru, flowing out of the northern end to the Lualaba River (Upper Congo River).

Lake Tanganyika is the other major hydrographic feature that belongs to the Congo basin. Its south-eastern end receives water from the Kalambo River, which forms part of Zambia's border with Tanzania. This river has Africa's second highest uninterrupted waterfall, the Kalambo Falls.

Climate



The climate of Zambia is tropical modified by elevation. In the Köppen climate classification, most of the country is classified as humid subtropical or tropical wet and dry, with small stretches of semi-arid steppe climate in the south-west and along the Zambezi valley.

There are two main seasons, the rainy season (November to April) corresponding to summer, and the dry season (May/June to October/November), corresponding to winter. The dry season is subdivided into the cool dry season (May/June to August), and the hot dry season (September to October/November). The modifying influence of altitude gives the country pleasant subtropical weather rather than tropical conditions during the cool season of May to August. However, average monthly temperatures remain above 20 °C (68 °F) over most of the country for eight or more months of the year.

Demographics


Village in Zambia. Women with baby.
Zambia is one of the most highly urbanised countries in sub-Saharan Africa with 44% of the population concentrated in a few urban areas along the major transport corridors, while rural areas are sparsely populated. Unemployment and underemployment in urban areas are serious problems, while most rural Zambians are subsistence farmers. The population comprises approximately 72 ethnic groups, most of which are Bantu-speaking.

Almost 90% of Zambians belong to the nine main ethnolinguistic groups: the Nyanja-Chewa, Bemba, Tonga, Tumbuka, Lunda, Luvale, Kaonde, Nkoya and Lozi. In the rural areas, each ethnic group is concentrated in a particular geographic region of the country and many groups are very small and not as well known. However, all the ethnic groups can be found in significant numbers in Lusaka and the Copperbelt.





Girl in a small village on the road between the town Kafue in the south and the capital city Lusaka – Zambia
Expatriates, mostly British or South African, as well as some white Zambian citizens, live mainly in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt in northern Zambia, where they are either employed in mines, financial and related activities or retired. There were 70,000 Europeans in Zambia in 1964, but many have since left the country. Zambia also has a small but economically important Asian population, most of whom are Indians and Chinese. There are 13,000 Indians in Zambia.[citation needed] An estimated 80,000 Chinese are resident in Zambia. In recent years, several hundred dispossessed white farmers have left Zimbabwe at the invitation of the Zambian government, to take up farming in the Southern provinc.

According to the World Refugee Survey 2008 published by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Zambia had a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 113,200. The majority of refugees in the country came from the Democratic Republic of Congo (55,400 refugees from the DRC living in Zambia in 2007), Angola (40,800; see Angolans in Zambia) and Rwanda (4,000).

Beginning in May 2008, the number of Zimbabweans in Zambia also began to increase significantly; the influx consisted largely of Zimbabweans formerly living in South Africa who were fleeing xenophobic violence there.[23] Nearly 60,000 refugees live in camps in Zambia, while 50,000 are mixed in with the local populations. Refugees who wish to work in Zambia must apply for official permits which can cost up to $500 per year oud.


Referência para busca:
Zâmbia áfrica inglês
Fotos de Zâmbia.

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