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Barbados

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Barbados



DADOS PRINCIPAIS:
Nome oficial: Barbados (Barbados).
Nacionalidade: barbadiana.
Data nacional: 30 de novembro (Independência).
Capital: Bridgetown.
Cidades principais: Bridgetown (6.070), Speightstown (3.500) (1990).
Idioma: Inglês (oficial).
Religião:cristianismo 67,2% (anglicanos 33%, outros protestantes 29,8%, católicos 4,4%), sem filiação 20,2%, outras 12,6% (1990)

GEOGRAFIA:
Localização: América Central.
Hora local: -1h.
Área: 431 km2.
Clima: tropical.

POPULAÇÃO :
Total: 270 mil (2000), sendo afro-americanos 80%, eurafricanos 16%, europeus meridionais 4% (1996).
Densidade: 626,45 hab./km2.
População urbana: 49% (1998).
População rural: 51% (1998).
Crescimento demográfico: 0% ao ano (1998).
Fecundidade: 1,5 filho por mulher (1995-2000).
Expectativa de vida M/F: 74/79 anos (1995-2000).
Mortalidade infantil: 12 por mil nascimentos (1995-2000).
Analfabetismo: 2,6% (1995).
IDH (0-1): 0,858 (1998).

POLÍTICA:
Forma de Governo: Monarquia parlamentarista.
Divisão administrativa: 11 paróquias.
Principais partidos: Trabalhista de Barbados (BLP), Trabalhista Democrático (DLP).
Legislativo: bicameral - Senado, com 21 membros indicados pelo governador-geral; Casa da Assembléia, com 28 membros eleitos por voto direto para mandato de 5 anos.
Constituição em vigor: 1966.

ECONOMIA:
Moeda: dólar de Barbados.
PIB: US$ 2,3 bilhões (1998).
PIB agropecuária: 7% (1996).
PIB indústria: 20% (1996).
PIB serviços: 73% (1996).
Crescimento do PIB: 4% ao ano (1998).
Renda per capita: US$ 6.610 (1995).
Força de trabalho: 140 mil (1998).
Agricultura: Principalmente batata-doce, cará, cenoura, outros legumes e verduras.
Pecuária: bovinos, suínos, ovinos, aves.
Pesca: 2,8 mil t (1997).
Mineração: gás natural, petróleo.
Indústria: química, petroquímica (plástico e borracha), alimentícia (açúcar), bebidas, tabaco.
Exportações: US$ 257 milhões (1998). Importações: US$ 1 bilhão (1998).
Principais parceiros comerciais: EUA, Reino Unido e Trinidad e Tobago.

DEFESA:
Efetivo total: 600 (1998).
Gastos: US$ 11 milhões (1998).

RELAÇÕES EXTERIORES:
Organizações: Banco Mundial, Caricom, Comunidade Britânica, FMI, OEA, OMC, ONU.
Embaixada: Tel. (202) 939-9200, fax (202) 332-7467 - Washington D.C., EUA - Não há embaixada no Brasil.


Barbados é o país mais oriental das Caraíbas (Caribe), situado no Oceano Atlântico, a leste de Santa Lúcia e de São Vicente e Granadinas, na área conhecida como Índias Ocidentais. Sua capital é Bridgetown.




História


Descoberta pelos espanhóis em 1492, foi visitada pelos portugueses de 1536 até 1625. Nesta data foi reclamada pelos britânicos em nome de Jaime I de Inglaterra, que lhe iniciaram a colonização em 1627-1628.

Manteve-se como colónia britânica até 1966, ano de sua independência política. Membro da Comunidade Britânica, o país é governado por um primeiro-ministro apoiado pelo Senado e pela Assembleia.

Geografia

Ver artigo principal: Geografia de Barbados

Barbados é uma ilha relativamente plana, erguendo-se em vertentes de pequena inclinação até uma região central mais elevada, cujo ponto cimeiro é o monte Hillaby, com 336 m de altitude. Situa-se numa posição ligeiramente excêntrica no Oceano Atlântico, quando comparada com as restantes ilhas das Caraíbas. O clima é tropical, com uma estação das chuvas de Junho a Outubro. A cidade principal é Bridgetown, a capital da nação. Outras localidades importantes são Holetown e Speightstown.

Demografia



A população é de 276 607 habitantes, o que corresponde a uma densidade de 644,8 hab/km², uma das mais elevadas do mundo. As taxas de natalidade e de mortalidade são, em 2003, respectivamente, de 13,15%o e 9,02%o. A esperança média de vida atinge 77,3 anos. O valor do Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH) é de 0,788, sendo o terceiro mais elevado de todo o continente americano, perdendo somente para os Estados Unidos e o Canadá.2 Estima-se que em 2025 a população seja de 327 000 habitantes. Os negros compõem 90% da população, seguindo-se-lhes os asiáticos e os mestiços (6%), e os brancos (4%). A religião maioritária é a protestante (67%). A língua oficial é o inglês.

Política




Barbados é uma monarquia constitucional. A atual rainha de Barbados é Isabel II, representada por um governador-geral, atualmente Sir Clifford Husbands. O chefe de governo é o primeiro-ministro, atualmente Freundel Stuart, que substituiu David John Howard Thompson após a sua morte repentina em outubro de 2010.

Subdivisões


Economia


O país tem uma economia baseada no turismo, nas finanças (paraíso fiscal) e na exportação de açúcar e seus derivados (rum). Com excepção da cana-de-açúcar, os produtos cultivados são para consumo local.

O petróleo e o gás natural são produzidos em pequenas quantidades. O Governo incentivou o investimento na produção de medicamentos, de vestuário, de cerâmica, de vidro e de compostos electrónicos.

Os outros produtos existentes são o açúcar, o melaço, os cigarros, o papel e os têxteis. Os principais parceiros comerciais são os Estados Unidos, o Reino Unido, a Jamaica, Venezuela e Trindade e Tobago. A moeda de Barbados é o dólar barbadiano


Barbados (i/bɑrˈbeɪdɒs/ or /bɑrˈbeɪdoʊs/) is a sovereign island country in the Lesser Antilles. It is 34 kilometres (21 mi) in length and up to 23 kilometres (14 mi) in width, covering an area of 431 square kilometres (166 sq mi). It is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 kilometres (62 mi) east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea; therein, it is about 168 kilometres (104 mi) east of the islands of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and 400 kilometres (250 mi) north-east of Trinidad and Tobago. Barbados is outside of the principal Atlantic hurricane belt.

Barbados was initially visited by the Spanish around the late 1400s to early 1500s and first appears on a Spanish map from 1511. The Portuguese visited in 1536, but they too left it unclaimed, with their only remnants being an introduction of wild hogs for a good supply of meat whenever the island was visited. The first English ship, the Olive Blossom, arrived in Barbados in 1624. They took possession of it in the name of King James I. In 1627 the first permanent settlers arrived from England and it became an English and later British colony.

Barbados has an estimated population of 284,000 people, with around 80,000 living in or around Bridgetown, the largest city and the country's capital. In 1966, Barbados became an independent state and Commonwealth realm, retaining Queen Elizabeth II as Head of State. Barbados is one of the Caribbean's leading tourist destinations and is one of the most developed islands in the region, despite it actually being classed as an Atlantic Island, with an HDI number of 0.825. In 2011 Barbados ranked second in the Americas (16th globally) on Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index, behind Canada


Etymology

According to accounts by descendants of the indigenous Arawakan-speaking tribes in other regional areas, the original name for Barbados was Ichirouganaim, with possible translations including "Red land with white teeth", "Redstone island with teeth outside (reefs)", or simply "Teeth".

The reason for the later name Barbados is controversial. According to some sources the Portuguese, en route to Brazil, were the first Europeans to come upon the island, while others say it was the Spanish who gave the Spanish name "Los Barbudos". The word Barbados means "bearded ones", but it is a matter of conjecture whether "bearded" refers to the long, hanging roots of the bearded fig-tree (Ficus citrifolia), indigenous to the island; to allegedly bearded Caribs once inhabiting the island; or, more fancifully, to the foam spraying over the outlying reefs giving the impression of a beard. In 1519, a map produced by the Genoese mapmaker Visconte Maggiolo showed and named Barbados in its correct position. Furthermore, an island in the Leewards that is very close in name is Barbuda and was once named Las Barbuadas by the Spanish.

Other names or nicknames associated with Barbados include "Bim" and "Bimshire". The origin is uncertain but several theories exist. The National Cultural Foundation of Barbados says that "Bim" was a word commonly used by slaves and that it derives from the phrase "bi mu" or either ("bem", "Ndi bem", "Nwanyi ibem" or "Nwoke ibem") from an Igbo phrase meaning "my people" or "my place". In colloquial or literary contexts, "Bim" can also take a more deific tone, referring to the "goddess" Barbados.[citation needed]

The word Bim and Bimshire are recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionaries. Another possible source for "Bim" is reported to be in the Agricultural Reporter of 25 April 1868, The Rev. N. Greenidge (father of one of the island's most famous scholars, Abel Hendy Jones Greenidge) suggested the listing of Bimshire as a county of England. Expressly named were "Wiltshire, Hampshire, Berkshire and Bimshire". Lastly in the Daily Argosy (of Demerara, i.e. Guyana) of 1652 it referred to Bim as a possible corruption of the word "Byam", who was a Royalist leader against the Parliamentarians. That source suggested the followers of Byam became known as Bims and became a word for all Barbadians.

History



The Barbadoes mulatto girl, c. 1764
Amerindian settlement of Barbados dates to about the 4th to 7th centuries AD, by a group known as the Saladoid-Barrancoid.[19] In the 13th century, the Kalinago arrived from South America.

The Spanish and Portuguese briefly claimed Barbados from the late 16th to the 17th centuries.The Arawaks are believed to have fled to neighbouring islands. Apart from possibly displacing the Caribs, the Spanish and Portuguese left little impact and left the island uninhabited. Some Arawaks migrated from Guyana in the 1800s and continue to live in Barbados.

From the arrival of the first English settlers in 1627–1628 until independence in 1966, Barbados was under uninterrupted English and later British governance and was the only Caribbean island that did not change hands during the colonial period. In the very early years, the majority of the population was white and male, with African slaves providing little of the workforce. Cultivation of tobacco, cotton, ginger and indigo was handled primarily by European indentured labour until the start of the sugar cane industry in the 1640s. As Barbados' economy grew, Barbados developed a large measure of local autonomy through its founding as a proprietary colony. Its House of Assembly began meeting in 1639. Among the island's earliest leading figures was the Anglo-Dutch Sir William Courten.

The 1780 hurricane killed over 4,000 people on Barbados. In 1854, a cholera epidemic killed over 20,000 inhabitants.[23] At emancipation in the late 1830s, the size of the slave population was approximately 83,000. Between 1946 and 1980, Barbados' rate of population growth was diminished by one-third because of emigration to Britain.

Government and politic





Barbados has been an independent country since 30 November 1966. It functions as a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, modelled on the British Westminster system, with Elizabeth II, Queen of Barbados, as head of state, represented locally by the Governor-General, Elliott Belgrave, and the Prime Minister as head of the government. The number of representatives within the House of Assembly has gradually increased from 24 at independence to its present total of 30 seats.

During the 1990s, at the suggestion of Trinidad and Tobago's Patrick Manning, Barbados attempted a political union with Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana. The project stalled after the then Prime Minister of Barbados, Lloyd Erskine Sandiford, became ill and his Democratic Labour Party lost the next general election. However, Barbados continues to share close ties with Trinidad and Tobago and with Guyana, claiming the highest number of Guyanese immigrants after the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.

Barbados functions as a two-party system, the two dominant parties being the ruling Democratic Labour Party and the opposition Barbados Labour Party (BLP). Until 2003, each party had served two terms in office alternately. The general election of 2003 victory for the Barbados Labour Party gave it a third term in office, as a result of which it achieved a total of fourteen continuous years in government, from 1994 until the 2008 elections. Under that administration, the former Prime Minister, The Right Honourable Owen S. Arthur, acted as the Regional Leader of the Caribbean Single Market (CSM).

The Honourable David Thompson, who was elected Prime Minister of Barbados in 2008, died of pancreatic cancer on 23 October 2010 and was succeeded by his Deputy Prime Minister, Freundel Stuart, was sworn in as head of government the same day.

Barbados has had several third parties since independence: The People's Pressure Movement, formed in the early 1970s, which contested the 1976 elections; The National Democratic Party, which contested the 1994 elections; and the People's Democratic Congress, which contested the 2008 elections. Apart from these, several independents have stood for election, but no independent has yet won a seat in Parliament.

Law

The Constitution of Barbados is the supreme law of the nation. The Attorney General heads the independent judiciary. Historically, Barbadian law was based entirely on English common law with a few local adaptations. At the time of independence, the Parliament of the United Kingdom lost its ability to legislate for Barbados, but the existing English and British common law and statutes in force at that time, together with other measures already adopted by the Barbadian Parliament, became the basis of the new country's legal system.

More recently, Barbadian legislation may be shaped or influenced by such organisations as the United Nations, the Organization of American States, or other international bodies to which Barbados has obligatory commitments by treaty. Additionally, through international co-operation, other institutions may supply the Barbados Parliament with key sample legislation to be adapted to meet local circumstances before enacting it as local law.

New Acts are passed by the Barbadian Parliament, and require royal assent by the Governor-General to become law.

In Barbados, camouflage clothing is reserved for military use, being forbidden for civilians, including children, to wear.

Barbados has been identified as one of the nations in which the International Press Institute would like to see the removal of criminal libel from the list of offences.

Judiciary


The local court system of Barbados is made-up of:
Magistrates' Courts: Covering Criminal, Civil, Domestic, Domestic Violence, and Juvenile matters. But can also take up matters dealing with Coroner's Inquests, Liquor Licences, and civil marriages. Further, the Magistrates' Courts deal with Contract and Tort law where claims do not exceed $10,000.00.
The Supreme Court: is made up of High Court and Court of Appeals. High Court: Consisting of Civil, Criminal, and Family law divisions.
Court of Appeal: Handles appeals from the High Court and Magistrates' Court. It hears appeals in both the civil, and criminal law jurisdictions. It may consist of a single Justice of Appeal sitting in Chambers; or may sit as a Full Court of three Justices of Appeals.

The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ), (based in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago), is the court of last resort (final jurisdiction) over Barbadian law. It replaced the London-based Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC). The CCJ may resolve other disputed matters dealing with the Caribbean (CARICOM) Single Market and Economy (CSME).

Foreign relations



Barbados is a full and participating member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME), and the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Organization of American States (OAS), Commonwealth of Nations, and the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ), which currently pertains only to Barbados, Belize and Guyana. In 2001 the Caribbean Community heads of government voted on a measure declaring that the region should work towards replacing the UK's Judicial Committee of the Privy Council with the Caribbean Court of Justice.

Barbados is an original Member (1995) of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), and participates actively in its work. It grants at least MFN treatment to all its trading partners. As of December 2007, Barbados is linked by an Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Commission. The pact involves the Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM) subgroup of the Group of African, Caribbean, and Pacific states (ACP). CARIFORUM presently the only part of the wider ACP-bloc that has concluded the full regional trade-pact with the European Union.

Trade policy has also sought to protect a small number of domestic activities, mostly food production, from foreign competition, while recognising that most domestic needs are best met by imports.

Military

The Barbados Defence Force has roughly 600 members; within it, 12-to-18-year-old adolescents make up the Barbados Cadet Corps. The defence preparations of the island nation are closely tied to defence treaties with the United Kingdom, the United States, and the People's Republic of China


Environmental issues





Barbados, seen from the International Space Station
The island is susceptible to environmental pressures. As one of the world's most densely populated isles, the government worked during the 1990s to aggressively integrate the growing south coast of the island into the Bridgetown Sewage Treatment Plant to reduce contamination of offshore coral reefs. As of the 2000s, a second treatment plant has been proposed along the islands' west coast. With such a dense populace, Barbados has placed large efforts on protecting its underground aquifers. As a coral-limestone island, Barbados is highly permeable to seepage of surface water into the earth. As such, a major emphasis by the government has been placed on protecting the catchment areas (in specific surface areas known as buffer zones) that lead directly into the huge network of underground aquifers and streams. On occasion illegal squatters have breached these areas, and the government has removed squatters to preserve the cleanliness of the underground springs which provide the island's drinking water.

The government has placed a huge emphasis on keeping Barbados clean with the aim of protecting the environment and preserving offshore coral reefs which surround the island. Many initiatives to mitigate human pressures on the coastal regions of Barbados and seas is the Coastal Zone Management Unit (CZMU). Barbados has nearly 90 km of coral reefs just offshore and two protected marine parks have been established off the west coast. Overfishing is another threat which faces Barbados.

Barbados is host to four species of nesting turtles (green turtles, loggerheads, and leatherbacks) and has the second largest hawksbill turtle breeding population in the Caribbean. The driving of vehicles on beaches can crush nests buried in the sand and such activity should be avoided in nesting areas.

Though on the opposite side of the Atlantic, and some 3000 miles west of Africa, Barbados is one of many places in the American continent which experiences heightened levels of mineral dust from the Sahara Desert. Some particularly intense dust episodes have been blamed partly for the impacts on the health of coral reefs surrounding Barbados or asthmatic episodes,but evidence has not wholly supported the former such claim.



Referência para busca:
Barbados américa inglês
Fotos de Barbados.

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