Papua Nova Guiné
Nome oficial: Estado Independente de Papua Nova Guiné (Papua New Guinea/Papua Niugini).
Nacionalidade: papuásia ou papua.
Data nacional: 16 de setembro (Independência).
Capital: Port Moresby.
Cidades principais: Port Moresby (188.089), Lae (80.655), Madang (27.057), Wewak (23.224), Goroka (17.855) (1990).
Idioma: inglês, inglês dialetal, motu (oficiais), línguas regionais.
Religião: cristianismo 96,6% (protestantes 58,4%, católicos 32,8%, anglicanos 5,4%), crenças tradicionais 2,5%, bahaísmo 0,6%, outras 0,3% (1980).
Localização: oeste da Oceania.
Área: 462.840 km2.
Área de floresta: 369 mil km2 (1995).
Total: 4,8 milhões (2000), sendo papuas 84%, melanésios 15%, outros 1% (1996).
Densidade: 10,37 hab./km2.
População urbana: 17% (1998).
Crescimento demográfico: 2,2% ao ano (1995-2000).
Fecundidade: 4,6 filhos por mulher (1995-2000).
Expectativa de vida M/F: 57/59 anos (1995-2000).
Mortalidade infantil: 61 por mil nascimentos (1995-2000).
Analfabetismo: 24% (2000).
IDH (0-1): 0,542 (1998).
Forma de governo: Monarquia parlamentarista.
Divisão administrativa: 20 províncias.
Principais partidos: do Progresso do Povo (PPP), Pangu, Movimento Democrático do Povo (PDM), da Ação do Povo (PAP), Congresso Nacional do Povo (PNC).
Legislativo: unicameral - Parlamento Nacional, com 109 membros eleitos por voto direto para mandato de 5 anos.
Constituição em vigor: 1975
PIB: US$ 3,7 bilhões (1998).
PIB agropecuária: 24% (1998).
PIB indústria: 42% (1998).
PIB serviços: 34% (1998).
Crescimento do PIB: 4,7% ao ano (1990-1998).
Renda per capita: US$ 890 (1998).
Força de trabalho: 2 milhões (1998).
Agricultura: cacau, coco, fruto de palma, látex, chá, café.
Pecuária: bovinos, suínos, aves.
Pesca: 45 mil t (1997).
Mineração: petróleo, cobre, ouro.
Indústria: alimentícia (peixe), bebidas, tabaco, madeireira, metalúrgica, máquinas, equipamentos de transporte.
Exportações: US$ 1,8 bilhão (1998).
Importações: US$ 1,2 bilhão (1998).
Principais parceiros comerciais: Austrália, Cingapura, Japão, Alemanha, Reino Unido.
Efetivo total: 4,3 mil (1998).
Gastos: US$ 55 milhões (1998).
Organizações: Apec, Banco Mundial, Comunidade Britânica, FMI, OMC, ONU.
Embaixada: Tel. (202) 745-3680, fax (202) 745-3679, e-mail: email@example.com - Washington D.C., EUA. - Não há embaixada no Brasil.
A Papua-Nova Guiné (em tok pisin: Papua Niugini), também designado como Papuásia-Nova Guiné , Papua Nova Guiné ou Papuásia Nova Guiné, oficialmente Estado Independente da Papua-Nova Guiné, é um país da Oceania que ocupa a metade oriental da ilha da Nova Guiné, e uma série de ilhas e arquipélagos, a leste e a nordeste, embora sempre na Melanésia. A única fronteira terrestre que tem é com a Indonésia, a oeste, mas tem fronteiras marítimas com Palau e os Estados Federados da Micronésia, a norte, com as Ilhas Salomão, a sudeste, e com a Austrália, através do mar de Coral, estreito de Torres e mar de Arafura, a sul. A sua capital é Port Moresby.
A metade oriental da ilha da Nova Guiné foi dividida em duas áreas: uma de administração britânica e outra de administração alemã em 1885. Assim permaneceu até 1902, quando a parte britânica foi cedida à Austrália, que se tornara independente no ano anterior.
Durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial o território pertencente à Alemanha foi ocupado pela Austrália, que continuou a administrar as duas áreas até a independência em 16 de setembro de 1975.
A ilha foi descoberta por navegadores portugueses em 1511, que lhe deram o nome de Nova Guiné. Nos anos seguintes muitos exploradores desembarcaram na ilha, que acabou dividida em três partes: a norte ficou com a Alemanha, a ocidental com a Holanda e a do sul com a Grã-Bretanha, que em 1906 a entregou à administração da Austrália. Vencida na Primeira Guerra Mundial, a Alemanha perdeu sua parte, que passou para administração australiana. Ambas as partes norte e sul fundiram-se numa só após a Segunda Guerra Mundial e constituíram-se no novo país, chamado Papua-Nova Guiné a partir de 1971.
Port Moresby, capital do país.
A Papua-Nova Guiné é um estado da Oceania que ocupa a metade oriental da Nova Guiné e algumas ilhas próximas, como a Nova Bretanha, a Nova Irlanda ou o Arquipélago das Luisíadas. A outra metade da ilha de Nova Guiné pertence à Indonésia. Tem uma área total de 462 840 km² (452 860 km² terrestre e 9980 km² de águas internas). Apenas faz fronteira com a Indonésia: essa fronteira tem 820 km de extensão. A sua costa tem um total de 5152 km. Seu relevo resume-se em planícies costeiras de baixo relevo ao norte e ao sul onde é mais extensa, constituída por florestas tropicais densas e rios caudalosos como o rio Fly, o maior deles, que ruma para o sul até o Golfo de Papua, formando um extenso delta juntamente com outros rios; e o rio Sepik que ruma para o norte da grande ilha. Todos eles têm suas nascentes na grande cadeia montanhosa que percorre a Nova Guiné de leste a oeste, onde no território papuano subdivide-se secundariamente nos Montes Star, Kubor, Owen Stanley, Bismark e entre outras cadeias. Seu relevo culmina-se no Monte Wilhelm ou Enduwa Kombuglu no idioma local, com 4509 m de altitude, no centro-norte do país, e entre outras montanhas de consideráveis altitudes acima de 3000 m que acompanham essas cadeias, muitas dessas sendo vulcões ativos ou extintos, incorporando a Papua-Nova Guiné no chamado Círculo de Fogo do Pacífico. Essa característica geológica acompanha as outras ilhas menores, principalmente as de Nova Bretanha, Nova Irlanda e Bougainville, com vulcões atingindo até 2000 m de altitude e com atividade presente. A pluviosidade frequente na quase totalidade do país, que é uma das maiores do mundo, caracteriza o clima equatorial, a vegetação de selva densa e rios sempre perenes.
Papua-Nova Guiné faz parte do tratado internacional chamado APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation), um bloco econômico que tem por objetivo transformar o Pacífico numa área de livre comércio e que engloba economias asiáticas, americanas e da Oceania.
Uma larga proporção da população é analfabeta . A maior parte da educação é provida por instituições religiosas , isto inclui 500 escolas da Igreja Luterana de Papua-Nova-Guiné10 A Pápua-Nova Guiné tem seis universidadades à par de outras instituições do Ensino Superior não-governamentais. As duas fundações de universidades são as Universidade de Papua-Nova Guiné situada no Distrito Nacional da Capital, e a Universidade de Tecnologia da Papua-Nova Guiné situada fora, em Lae, na Província Morobe.
As outras quatro instituições universidades que antes eram faculdades, foram estabelecidas recentemente depois de ganhar o reconhecimento do governo. São as seguintes: Universidade de Goroka na Província de Eastern Highlands, Universidade Palavra Divina (gerida pela Igreja Católica Missionários da Palavra Divina) na Província de Madang, Universidade de Vudal na Província de East New Britain e Universidade Adventista do Pacífico (regida pela Igreja Adventista do Sétimo Dia) no Distrito Nacional da Capital.
Nas altas terras de Papua, as montanhas fazem barreiras naturais entre grupos diferentes ajudando-os a preservar suas singulares variedades de cultura e línguas. Com 850 idiomas falados em todo o país, Papua-Nova Guiné é a nação em que se falam mais línguas. É também nesta meia-ilha que se concentra parte dos idiomas ameaçados de extinção, que pode reduzir os atuais seis mil idiomas humanos a apenas seiscentos.
O país tem como esporte nacional o rugby league, sendo, ao lado da vizinha Austrália, um dos dois únicos países onde este código de rugby é mais popular que o rugby union, o mais difundido globalmente. A seleção papuásia participa da Copa do Mundo de Rugby League desde a década de 1980 e vem tentando entrar no campeonato australiano, o mais forte do mundo.
Papua New Guinea (PNG; Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini), officially named the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea (the western portion of the island is a part of the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua) and numerous offshore islands. It is located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, in a region described since the early 19th century as Melanesia. The capital is Port Moresby.
Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. According to recent data, 841 different languages are listed for the country, although 11 of these have no known living speakers. There may be at least as many traditional societies, out of a population of about 6.3 million. It is also one of the most rural, as only 18% of its people live in urban centres. The country is one of the world's least explored, culturally and geographically, and many undiscovered species of plants and animals are thought to exist in the interior of Papua New Guinea.
Strong growth in Papua New Guinea's mining and resource sector has led to PNG becoming the sixth fastest-growing economy in the world as of 2011. Despite this, many people live in extreme poverty, with about one-third of the population living on less than US$1.25 per day. The majority of the population still live in traditional societies and practice subsistence-based agriculture. These societies and clans have some explicit acknowledgement within the nation's constitutional framework. The PNG Constitution expresses the wish for "traditional villages and communities to remain as viable units of Papua New Guinean society", and for active steps to be taken in their preservation.
After being ruled by three external powers since 1884, Papua New Guinea gained its independence from Australia in 1975. It became a separate Commonwealth realm with Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II reigning as the Queen of Papua New Guinea.
Human remains have been found which have been dated to about 50,000 BC although this is an estimate. These ancient inhabitants probably migrated from Southeast Asia, from people whose ancestors had originated in Africa 50,000 to 70,000 years ago. New Guinea was first populated by modern humans at approximately the same time as Australia.
Kerepunu villagers, British New Guinea, 1885
Agriculture was independently developed in the New Guinea highlands around 7000 BC, making it one of the few areas in the world where people independently domesticated plants. A major migration of Austronesian speaking peoples came to coastal regions roughly 500 BC. This has been correlated with the introduction of pottery, pigs, and certain fishing techniques. More recently, in the 18th century, the sweet potato was taken to New Guinea, having been introduced to the Moluccas by Portuguese traders. The far higher crop yields from sweet potato gardens radically transformed traditional agriculture; sweet potato largely supplanted the previous staple, taro, and gave rise to a significant increase in population in the highlands.
Although headhunting and cannibalism have been practically eradicated, in the past they occurred in many parts of the country as part of ritual practices. For example, in 1901, on Goaribari Island in the Gulf of Papua, a missionary, Harry Dauncey, found 10,000 skulls in the island's Long Houses. According to the writer Marianna Torgovnick, "The most fully documented instances of cannibalism as a social institution come from New Guinea, where head-hunting and ritual cannibalism survived, in certain isolated areas, into the fifties, sixties, and seventies, and still leave traces within certain social groups."
Little was known in Europe about the island until the 19th century, although Portuguese and Spanish explorers, such as Dom Jorge de Meneses and Yñigo Ortiz de Retez, respectively, had encountered it as early as the 16th century. Traders from Southeast Asia had visited New Guinea beginning 5,000 years ago to collect bird of paradise plumes. The country's dual name results from its complex administrative history before independence. The word papua is derived from an old local term of uncertain origin, and "New Guinea" (Nueva Guinea) was the name coined by the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez. In 1545, he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. The northern half of the country was ruled as a colony for some decades by Germany, beginning in 1884, as German New Guinea. The southern half was colonised in the same year by the United Kingdom as British New Guinea, but in 1904 with the passage of the Papua Act, 1905 was transferred to the newly formed Commonwealth of Australia who took on its administration. Additionally from 1905, British New Guinea was renamed the Territory of Papua.
Australian forces attack Japanese positions during the Battle of Buna–Gona. 7 January 1943.
During World War I, German New Guinea was occupied by Australia and after the war was given a League of Nations Mandate to administer it. Papua, by contrast, was deemed to be an External Territory of the Australian Commonwealth, though as a matter of law it remained a British possession. This was significant for the country's post-independence legal system. The difference in legal status meant that up until 1949, Papua and New Guinea had entirely separate administrations, both controlled by Australia.
The New Guinea campaign (1942–1945) was one of the major military campaigns of World War II. Approximately 216,000 Japanese, Australian and U.S. soldiers, sailors and airmen died during the New Guinea Campaign. The two territories were combined into the Territory of Papua and New Guinea after World War II, which later was simply referred to as "Papua New Guinea".
However, certain statutes continued to have application only in one of the two territories. This territorial difference of law was complicated further by the adjustment of the former boundary among contiguous provinces with respect to road access and language groups. Some of such statutes apply on one side only of a boundary which no longer exists.
The administration of Papua became open to United Nations oversight; a peaceful independence from Australia occurred on 16 September 1975, and close ties remain (Australia continues as the largest bilateral aid donor to Papua New Guinea). Papua New Guinea was admitted to membership in the United Nations on 10 October 1975.
A secessionist revolt in 1975–76 on Bougainville Island resulted in an eleventh-hour modification of the draft Constitution of Papua New Guinea to allow for Bougainville and the other eighteen districts to have quasi-federal status as provinces. A renewed uprising started in 1988 and claimed 20,000 lives until it was resolved in 1997. Following the revolt, the autonomous Bougainville elected Joseph Kabui as president. He was succeeded by his deputy John Tabinaman, who continued to be re-elected as leader until the election of December 2008, which James Tanis won.
Anti-Chinese rioting, involving tens of thousands of people, broke out in May 2009. The initial spark was a fight between Chinese and Papua New Guinean workers at a nickel factory under construction by a Chinese company. Native resentment against the numerous small businesses being run by Chinese led to the rioting.
Main article: Politics of Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm, with Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II acting as its Sovereign and Head of State. It was expected by the constitutional convention, which prepared the draft constitution, and by Australia, the outgoing metropolitan power, that Papua New Guinea would choose not to retain its link with the Commonwealth monarchy. The founders, however, considered that imperial honours had a cachet that the newly independent state would not be able to confer with a purely indigenous honours system, so the monarchy was retained. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General of Papua New Guinea, currently Michael Ogio. Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands are unusual among Commonwealth realms in that Governors-General are selected by the legislature rather than by the executive branch.
Actual executive power lies with the Prime Minister, who heads the cabinet of 31 MPs from the ruling Coalition, which make up the government. The current Prime Minister is Peter O'Neill. The unicameral National Parliament has 111 seats, of which 22 are occupied by the governors of the 21 provinces (2 new ones were approved by Parliament in 2012) and the National Capital District (NCD). Candidates for members of parliament are voted upon when the prime minister asks the Governor-General to call a national election, a maximum of five years after the previous national election.
In the early years of independence, the instability of the party system led to frequent votes of no confidence in Parliament with resulting changes of the government of the day, but with referral to the electorate, through national elections only occurring every five years. In recent years, successive governments have passed legislation preventing such votes sooner than 18 months after a national election and within 12-month of the next election, and in December 2012 the first 2 (of 3) readings were passed to prevent votes of no confidence occurring within the first 30 months. This restriction on votes of no confidence has arguably resulted in greater stability, although perhaps at a cost of reducing the accountability of the executive branch of government.
Elections in PNG attract large numbers of candidates. After independence in 1975, members were elected by the first past the post system, with winners frequently gaining less than 15% of the vote. Electoral reforms in 2001 introduced the Limited Preferential Vote system (LPV), a version of the Alternative Vote. The 2007 general election was the first to be conducted using LPV.
In foreign policy, Papua New Guinea is a member of the Pacific Islands Forum and the Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) of countries and was accorded Observer status within ASEAN in 1976, followed later by Special Observer status in 1981. It is also a member of APEC and an ACP country, associated with the European Union
Since Aug-2011, there was a political crisis between the parliament-elect Prime Minister, Peter O'Neill (voted into office by a large majority of MPs) and Sir Michael Somare, who was deemed by the Supreme Court (in a December Opinion, 3:2) to retain office. The stand-off between Parliament and the Supreme Court continued until the July 2012 National Elections, with legislation passed effectively removing the Chief Justice and subjecting the Supreme Court members to greater control by the Legislature, as well as a series of other laws passed, for example limiting the age for a Prime Minister. The confrontation reached a peak, with the Deputy Prime Minister entering the Supreme Court, during a hearing, escorted by some police, ostensibly to 'arrest' the Chief Justice. There was strong pressure amongst some MPs to defer the National Elections for a further six months-1-year, although their powers to do that were highly questionable. The Parliament-elect 'Prime Minister' and other cooler-headed MPs carried the votes for the writs for the new Election to be issued, slightly late, but for the Election itself to occur on time, thereby avoiding a continuation of the Constitutional Crisis. The crisis was tense at times, but largely restricted to the political and legal fraternity, plus some police factions, but the public and public service (including most police and military) standing back. It was a period when, with increased telecommunication access and use of social media (notably Facebook and mobile phones) the public and students played some part in helping maintain restraint and demanding the leadership to adhere to Constitutional processes and not to defer the Elections and the people's say in who should be their legitimate representatives for the next five years.
Under an Amendment of 2002 the leader of the party winning the largest number of seats in the Election is invited by the Governor-General to form the Government, if he can muster the necessary majority in Parliament. The process of forming such a coalition in PNG, where there is little ideologically binding parties together, involves considerable horsetrading right up until the last moment. Peter O'Neil emerged Papua New Guinea's Prime Minister after the July 2012 Election, and formed a Government with the former Governor of East New Britain Province, Leon Dion as Deputy Prime Minister.
The unicameral Parliament enacts legislation in the same manner as in other jurisdictions that have "cabinet," "responsible government," or "parliamentary democracy": it is introduced by the executive government to the legislature, debated and, if passed, becomes law when it receives royal assent by the Governor-General. Most legislation is actually regulation implemented by the bureaucracy under enabling legislation previously passed by Parliament.
All ordinary statutes enacted by Parliament must be consistent with the Constitution. The courts have jurisdiction to rule on the constitutionality of statutes, both in disputes before them and on a reference where there is no dispute but only an abstract question of law. Unusual among developing countries, the judicial branch of government in Papua New Guinea has remained remarkably independent, and successive executive governments have continued to respect its authority.
The "underlying law" – that is, the common law of Papua New Guinea – consists of principles and rules of common law and equity in England common law as it stood on 16 September 1975 (the date of Independence), and thereafter the decisions of PNG's own courts. The courts are directed by the Constitution and, latterly, the Underlying Law Act, to take note of the "custom" of traditional communities, with a view to determining which customs are common to the whole country and may be declared also to be part of the underlying law. In practice, this has proved extremely difficult and has been largely neglected. Statutes are largely adapted from overseas jurisdictions, primarily Australia and England. Advocacy in the courts follows the adversarial pattern of other common law countries.
This national court system used in towns and cities is supported by a village court system in the more remote areas. The law underpinning the village courts is 'customary law' and these courts are discussed further on the Law of Papua New Guinea page.
Main articles: Regions of Papua New Guinea, Provinces of Papua New Guinea, and Districts and LLGs of Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea is divided into four regions, which are not the primary administrative divisions but are quite significant in many aspects of government, commercial, sporting and other activities.
The nation has 22 province-level divisions: twenty provinces, the Autonomous Region of Bougainville and the National Capital District. Each province is divided into one or more districts, which in turn are divided into one or more Local Level Government areas.
Provinces are the primary administrative divisions of the country. Provincial governments are branches of the national government – Papua New Guinea is not a federation of provinces. The province-level divisions are as follows:
Graphical depiction of Papua New Guinea's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories.
Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, including mineral and renewable resources, such as forests, marine (including a large portion of the world's major remaining tuna stocks), and in some parts for agriculture. The rugged terrain, including high mountain ranges and valleys, swamps and islands, and high cost of developing infrastructure, combined with other factors, including serious law and order problems in some centres, and the system of customary land title makes it difficult for outside developers, whilst local developers are also handicapped by years of deficient investment in education, health, ICT and access to finance. Agriculture, both for subsistence and cash crops provides a livelihood for 85% of the population and continues to provide some 30% of GDP. Mineral deposits, including gold, oil, and copper, account for 72% of export earnings. Oil palm production has grown steadily over recent years (largely from estates, but with extensive outgrower output), with palm oil now the main agricultural export, but in terms of households participating coffee remains the major export crop (produced largely in the Highlands provinces), followed by cocoa and coconut oil/copra from the coastal areas, each largely produced by smallholders and tea, produced on estates and rubber.
Former Prime Minister Sir Mekere Morauta tried to restore integrity to state institutions, stabilize the kina, restore stability to the national budget, privatize public enterprises where appropriate, and ensure ongoing peace on Bougainville following the 1997 agreement which ended Bougainville's secessionist unrest. The Morauta government had considerable success in attracting international support, specifically gaining the backing of the IMF and the World Bank in securing development assistance loans. Significant challenges face the current Prime Minister Sir Michael Somare, including gaining further investor confidence, continuing efforts to privatize government assets, and maintaining the support of members of Parliament.
In March 2006 the United Nations Development Programme Policy called for Papua New Guinea's designation of developing country to be downgraded to least-developed country because of protracted economic and social stagnation. However, an evaluation by the International Monetary Fund in late 2008 found that "a combination of prudent fiscal and monetary policies, and high global prices for mineral commodity exports, have underpinned Papua New Guinea's recent buoyant economic growth and macroeconomic stability. By 2012 PNG had enjoyed a decade of positive economic growth, at over 6% since 2007, even during the Global Financial Crisis years of 2008/9. PNG's Real GDP growth rate as at 2011 was 8.9%., and 9.2% for 2012, according to the Asian Development Bank. This economic growth has been primarily attributed to strong commodity prices, particularly mineral but also agricultural, with the high demand for the mineral products largely sustained even during the crisis from the buoyant Asian markets a booming mining sector, and particularly since 2009 by buoyant outlooks and the actual construction phase for the PNG LNG project, by a consortium led by Exxon and scheduled to commence production in late 2014, for export largely to China and the East Asian market Liquefied Natural Gas; Further gas and mineral projects are proposed (including the large Wafi-Golpu copper-gold mine), with extensive exporation ongoing across the country. Economic 'development' based on the extractive industries also carries difficult consequences for local communities, and there has been much contention[by whom?] around river tailings in the vast Fly river, submarine tailings from the new Ramu-Nickel-cobalt mine, commencing exports in late 2012 (after a delay from landowner-led court challenges), and from proposed submarine mining in the Bismarck Sea (by Nautilus Minerals). One major project conducted through the PNG Department for Community Development suggested that other pathways to sustainable development should be considered.
The PNG Government's long term Vision 2050 and shorter term policy documents, including the 2013 Budget emphasise the need for a more diverse economy, based upon sustainable industries and avoiding the effects of Dutch Disease from major resource extraction projects undermining other industries, as has occurred in many countries experiencing oil or other mineral booms, notably in Western Africa, undermining much of their agriculture sector, manufacturing and tourism, and with them broad-based employment prospects. Various measures have been taken to mitigate these effects, including through the establishment of a sovereign wealth fund, partly to stabilise revenue and expenditure flows, but much will depend upon the readiness to make real reforms to effective utilisation of revenue, tackling rampant corruption and empowering households and businesses to access markets, services and develop a more buoyant economy, with lower costs, especially for small-medium enterprises.
The PNG legislature has enacted various laws in which a type of tenure called "customary land title" is recognised, meaning that the traditional lands of the indigenous peoples have some legal basis to inalienable tenure. This customary land notionally covers most of the usable land in the country (some 97% of total land area); alienated land is either held privately under State Lease or is government land. Freehold Title (also known as fee simple) can only be held by Papua New Guinea citizens.
Only some 3% of the land of Papua New Guinea is in private hands; it[clarification needed] is privately held under 99-year state lease, or it is held by the State. There is virtually no freehold title; the few existing freeholds are automatically converted to state lease when they are transferred between vendor and purchaser. Unalienated land is owned under customary title by traditional landowners. The precise nature of the seisin varies from one culture to another. Many writers portray land as in the communal ownership of traditional clans; however, closer studies usually show that the smallest portions of land whose ownership cannot be further divided are held by the individual heads of extended families and their descendants, or their descendants alone if they have recently died.
This is a matter of vital importance because a problem of economic development is identifying the membership of customary landowning groups and the owners. Disputes between mining and forestry companies and landowner groups often devolve on the issue of whether the companies entered into contractual relations for the use of land with the true owners. Customary property – usually land – cannot be devised by will; it can only be inherited according to the custom of the deceased's people. The Lands Act was amended in 2010 along with the Land Group Incorporation Act, intended to improve the management of State land, mechanisms for dispute resolution over land, and to enable customary landowners to be better able to access finance and possible partnerships over portions of their land, if they seek to develop it for urban or rural economic activities. The Land Group Incorporation Act requires more specific identification of the customary landowners than hitherto and their more specific authorisation before any land arrangements are determined; (a major issue in recent years has been a land grab, using, or rather misusing, the Lease-Leaseback provision under the Land Act, notably using 'Special Agricultural and Business Leases' – SABLs – to acquire vast tracts of customary land, purportedly for agricultural projects, but in an almost all cases as a back-door mechanism for securing tropical forest resources for logging, and circumventing the more exacting requirements of the Forest Act, for securing Timber Permits (which must comply with sustainability requirements and be competitively secured, and with the customary landowners approval). Following a national outcry, these SABLs have been subject to a Commission of Inquiry, established in mid-2011, for which the report is still awaited for initial presentation to the Prime Minister and Parliament.
Huli Wigman from the Southern Highlands
Papua New Guinea is one of the most heterogeneous nations in the world. There are hundreds of ethnic groups indigenous to Papua New Guinea, the majority being from the group known as Papuans, whose ancestors arrived in the New Guinea region tens of thousands of years ago. Many remote Papuan tribes still have only marginal contact with the outside world.
The others are Austronesians, their ancestors having arrived in the region less than four thousand years ago. There are also numerous people from other parts of the world now resident, including Chinese, Europeans, Australians, Filipinos, Polynesians and Micronesians. At the brink of Papuan independence in 1975, there were 40,000 expatriates (mostly Australian and Chinese) in Papua New Guinea.
Papua New Guinea has more languages than any other country, with over 820 indigenous languages, representing 12% of the world's total, but most have fewer than 1,000 speakers. The most widely spoken indigenous language is Enga with about 200,000 speakers, followed by Melpa and Huli. Indigenous languages are classified into two large groups: Austronesian languages and non-Austronesian (or Papuan languages). There are three official languages for Papua New Guinea. English is an official language and is the language of government and the education system, but it is not widely spoken.
The primary lingua franca of the country is Tok Pisin (commonly known in English as New Guinea Pidgin or Melanesian Pidgin), in which much of the debate in Parliament is conducted, many information campaigns and advertisements are presented, and until recently a national newspaper, Wantok, was published. The only area where Tok Pisin is not prevalent is the southern region of Papua, where people often use the third official language, Hiri Motu.
Although it lies in the Papua region, Port Moresby has a highly diverse population which primarily uses Tok Pisin, and to a lesser extent English, with Motu spoken as the indigenous language in outlying villages. With an average of only 7,000 speakers per language, Papua New Guinea has a greater density of languages than any other nation on earth except Vanuatu.
Public expenditure was at 7.3% of all government expenditure in 2006, whereas private expenditure was at 0.6% of the GDP. There were five physicians per 100,000 people in the early 2000s. Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in New Guinea. In 2003, the most recently reported year, 70,226 cases of laboratory confirmed malaria were reported, along with 537 deaths. A total of 1,729,697 cases were probable.
Papua New Guinea has the highest incidence of the HIV and AIDS in the Pacific region and is the fourth country in the Asia Pacific region to fit the criteria for a generalised HIV/AIDS epidemic. Lack of HIV/AIDS awareness is a major problem, especially in rural areas.
Asaro mudman with his unique clay mask
In June 2011, the United Nations Population Fund released a report on The State of the World's Midwifery. It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries. The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Papua New Guinea is 250. This is compared with 311.9 in 2008 and 476.3 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 69 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 37. The aim of this report is to highlight ways in which the Millennium Development Goals can be achieved, particularly Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality and Goal 5 – Improve maternal health. In Papua New Guinea the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 1 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women is 1 in 94.
Referência para busca:
Papua Nova Guiné oceania inglês
Fotos de Papua Nova Guiné.