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Afeganistão

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Afeganistão



DADOS PRINCIPAIS:
Nome oficial: Emirado Islâmico do Afeganistão (De Afghanistan Islami; Doulat-e-Islami Afghanistan)
Nacionalidade: afegane.
Data nacional: 27 de abril (Aniversário da Revolução);18 de agosto (Independência).
Capital: Cabul.
Cidades principais: Cabul (1.424.400), Qandahar (225.500), Herat (177.300), Mazar-e-Sharif (130.600) (1988).
Idioma: afegane e dari (oficiais).
Religião: islamismo 99% (sunitas 84%, xiitas 15%), outras 1% (1990).

GEOGRAFIA:
Localização: centro-oeste da Ásia.
Hora local: +7h30.
Área: 652.225 km2.
Clima: subtropical árido (maior parte).
Área de floresta: 14 mil km2 (1995).

POPULAÇÃO:
Total: 22,7 milhões (2000), sendo patanes 38%, tadjiques 25%, hazarás 19%, uzbeques 6%, outros 12% (1996).
Densidade: 34,8 hab./km2.
População urbana: 21% (1998).
População rural: 79% (1998).
Crescimento demográfico: 2,9% ao ano (1995-2000).
Fecundidade: 6,9 filhos por mulher (1995-2000).
Expectativa de vida M/F: 45/46 anos (1995-2000).
Mortalidade infantil: 152 por mil nascimentos (1995-2000).
Analfabetismo: 63,7% (2000).

POLÍTICA:
Forma de governo: Conselho de ministros interino formado por representantes da milícia Taliban e chefiado por Haji Mola Mohammad Rabbani (desde 1996). Não é reconhecido pela ONU.
Divisão administrativa: 31 províncias.
Principais partidos: Taliban, Sociedade Islâmica, Movimento Nacional Islâmico (fundamentalistas); Movimento Revolucionário Islâmico (moderado); Frente Islâmica Unida de Salvação do Afeganistão (Fiusa) (oposição).
Legislativo: não há, suspenso desde 1992.
Constituição em vigor: suspensa.

ECONOMIA:
Moeda: afegani.
PIB agropecuária: 64,4% (1993).
PIB indústria: 20% (1993).
PIB serviços: 15,6% (1993) .
Força de trabalho: 11 milhões (1998).
Agricultura: trigo, uva, outras frutas, algodão em pluma.
Pecuária: caprinos, ovinos, aves.
Pesca: 1,2 mil t (1997).
Mineração: gás natural.
Indústria: alimentícia, têxtil (algodão), fertilizantes (químicos), materiais de construção (cimento), couro, petroquímica (plástico). Exportações: US$ 150 milhões (1997).
Importações: US$ 450 milhões (1997).
Principais parceiros comerciais: Europa Ocidental, países-membros da Asean, Paquistão, Japão, China, países da ex-URSS.

DEFESA:
Efetivo total: 400 mil (1998).
Gastos: US$ 245 milhões (1998).

RELAÇÕES EXTERIORES:
Organizações: Banco Mundial, FMI, ONU.
Embaixada: Tel. (202) 234-3770, fax (202) 328-3516 - Washington D.C., EUA. - Não há embaixada no Brasil.


Afghanistan (/ʌfˈɡʌnɪstɑːn/; i/æfˈɡænɨstæn/; Persian: افغانستان‎; Pashto: Afġānistān‎), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked sovereign state forming part of South Asia,[8] Central Asia, and to some extent Western Asia. It has a population of around 30 million inhabiting an area of approximately 647,500 km2 (250,001 sq mi), making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and the east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the far northeast.

Afghanistan has been an ancient focal point of the Silk Road and human migration. Archaeologists have found evidence of human habitation from as far back as the Middle Paleolithic. Urban civilization may have begun in the area as early as 3,000 to 2,000 BCE. Sitting at an important geostrategic location that connects the Middle East culture with Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, the land has been home to various peoples through the ages and witnessed many military campaigns, notably by Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan, and in modern era Western forces. The land also served as a source from which the Greco-Bactrians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khiljis, Timurids, Mughals, Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.

The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan begins in 1709, when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar followed by the rise of the Durrani Empire in 1747. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the 1919 Anglo-Afghan War, King Amanullah began a European style modernization of the country but was stopped by the ultra-conservatives. During the Cold War, after the withdrawal of the British from neighboring India in 1947, the United States and the Soviet Union began spreading influences in Afghanistan, which led to a bloody war between the US-backed mujahideen forces and the Soviet-backed Afghan government in which over a million Afghans lost their lives. This was followed by the 1990s civil war, the rise and fall of the extremist Taliban government and the 2001–present war. In December 2001, the United Nations Security Council authorized the creation of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to help maintain security in Afghanistan and assist the Karzai administration.

Three decades of war made Afghanistan one of the world's most dangerous countries, including the largest producer of refugees and asylum seekers. While the international community is rebuilding war-torn Afghanistan, terrorist groups such as the Haqqani Network and Hezbi Islami[22] are actively involved in a nationwide Taliban-led insurgency, which includes hundreds of assassinations and suicide attacks. According to the United Nations, the insurgents were responsible for 80% of civilian casualties in 2011 and 2012.

About 42% of the population of the country lives below the international poverty line which means living on less than U.S. $1.25 a day[27] and about a little over 70% of the population is illiterate.


The name Afghānistān (Persian: افغانستان‎, [avɣɒnestɒn]) means "Land of the Afghans", which originates from the ethnonym "Afghan". Historically, the name "Afghan" mainly designated the Pashtun people, the largest ethnic group of Afghanistan. This name is mentioned in the form of Abgan in the 3rd century CE by the Sassanians and as Avagana (Afghana) in the 6th century CE by Indian astronomer Varahamihira. A people called the Afghans are mentioned several times in a 10th-century geography book, Hudud al-'alam, particularly where a reference is made to a village: "Saul, a pleasant village on a mountain. In it live Afghans."





The name "Afghaunistan" is written on this 1847 lithograph by James Rattray.
Al-Biruni referred to them in the 11th century as various tribes living on the western frontier mountains of the Indus River, which would be the Sulaiman Mountains. Ibn Battuta, a famous Moroccan scholar visiting the region in 1333, writes:


"We travelled on to Kabul, formerly a vast town, the site of which is now occupied by a village inhabited by a tribe of Persians called Afghans. They hold mountains and defiles and possess considerable strength, and are mostly highwaymen. Their principle mountain is called Kuh Sulayman."

One prominent 16th-century Persian scholar explains extensively about the Afghans. For example, he writes:


"The men of Kábul and Khilj also went home; and whenever they were questioned about the Musulmáns of the Kohistán (the mountains), and how matters stood there, they said, "Don't call it Kohistán, but Afghánistán; for there is nothing there but Afgháns and disturbances." Thus it is clear that for this reason the people of the country call their home in their own language Afghánistán, and themselves Afgháns."



It is widely accepted that the terms "Pashtun" and Afghan are synonyms.[31] In the writings of the 17th-century Pashto poet Khushal Khan Khattak it is mentioned:


"Pull out your sword and slay any one, that says Pashtun and Afghan are not one! Arabs know this and so do Romans: Afghans are Pashtuns, Pashtuns are Afghans!"

The last part of the name, -stān is a Persian suffix for "place". The name "Afghanistan" is described by the 16th century Mughal Emperor Babur in his memoirs as well as by the later Persian scholar Firishta and Babur's descendants, referring to the traditional ethnic Pashtun territories between the Hindu Kush mountains and the Indus River.[38] In the early 19th century, Afghan politicians decided to adopt the name Afghanistan for the entire Afghan Empire after its English translation had already appeared in various treaties with Qajarid Persia and British India. In 1857, in his review of J.W. Kaye's The Afghan War, Friedrich Engels describes "Afghanistan" as:


"an extensive country of Asia ... between Persia and the Indies, and in the other direction between the Hindu Kush and the Indian Ocean. It formerly included the Persian provinces of Khorassan and Kohistan, together with Herat, Beluchistan, Cashmere, and Sinde, and a considerable part of the Punjab ... Its principal cities are Kabul, the capital, Ghuznee, Peshawer, and Kandahar."

The Afghan kingdom was sometimes referred to as the Kingdom of Kabul, as mentioned by the British statesman and historian Mountstuart Elphinstone.[41] Afghanistan was officially recognized as a sovereign state by the international community after the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 was signed.

A landlocked mountainous country with plains in the north and southwest, Afghanistan is described as being located within South Asia or Central Asia. It is part of the Greater Middle East Muslim world, which lies between latitudes 29° N and 39° N, and longitudes 60° E and 75° E. The country's highest point is Noshaq, at 7,492 m (24,580 ft) above sea level. It has a continental climate with very harsh winters in the central highlands, the glaciated northeast (around Nuristan) and the Wakhan Corridor, where the average temperature in January is below −15 °C (5 °F), and hot summers in the low-lying areas of the Sistan Basin of the southwest, the Jalalabad basin in the east, and the Turkestan plains along the Amu River in the north, where temperatures average over 35 °C (95 °F) in July.[citation needed]





Landscapes of Afghanistan

Despite having numerous rivers and reservoirs, large parts of the country are dry. The endorheic Sistan Basin is one of the driest regions in the world. Aside from the usual rain falls, Afghanistan receives snow during winter in the Hindu Kush and Pamir Mountains, and the melting snow in the spring season enters the rivers, lakes, and streams. However, two-thirds of the country's water flows into neighboring countries of Iran, Pakistan, and Turkmenistan. The state needs more than US$2 billion to rehabilitate its irrigation systems so that the water is properly managed.

The northeastern Hindu Kush mountain range, in and around the Badakhshan Province of Afghanistan, is in a geologically active area where earthquakes may occur almost every year. They can be deadly and destructive sometimes, causing landslides in some parts or avalanche during winter.[51] The last strong earthquakes were in 1998, which killed about 6,000 people in Badakhshan near Tajikistan. This was followed by the 2002 Hindu Kush earthquakes in which over 150 people of various regional countries were killed and over 1,000 injured. The 2010 earthquake left 11 Afghans dead, over 70 injured and more than 2,000 houses destroyed.

The country's natural resources include: coal, copper, iron ore, lithium, uranium, rare earth elements, chromite, gold, zinc, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, marble, precious and semi-precious stones, natural gas, and petroleum among other things. In 2010, US and Afghan government officials estimated that untapped mineral deposits located in 2007 by the US Geological Survey are worth between $900 bn and $3 trillion.

At 652,230 km2 (251,830 sq mi),[58] Afghanistan is the world's 41st largest country, slightly bigger than France and smaller than Burma, about the size of Texas in the United States. It borders Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the far east.


History


Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites.

The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and often fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire and the Sassanid Empire.

Many kingdoms have also risen to power in what is now Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids, Mughals, and finally the Hotaki and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.







Bilingual (Greek and Aramaic) edict by Emperor Ashoka from the 3rd century BCE was discovered in the southern city of Kandahar.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been closely connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east, west and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak (near Kandahar in the south of the country) may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization.





One of the Buddhas of Bamiyan, Buddhism was widespread in the region before the Islamic conquest of Afghanistan
After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan, among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians. These tribes later migrated further south to India, west to what is now Iran, and towards Europe via the area north of the Caspian. The region as a whole was called Ariana.

The ancient religion of Zoroastrianism is believed by some to have originated in what is now Afghanistan between 1800 and 800 BCE, as its founder Zoroaster is thought to have lived and died in Balkh. Ancient Eastern Iranian languages may have been spoken in the region around the time of the rise of Zoroastrianism. By the middle of the 6th century BCE, the Achaemenid Persians overthrew the Medes and incorporated Afghanistan (Arachosia, Aria and Bactria) within its boundaries. An inscription on the tombstone of King Darius I of Persia mentions the Kabul Valley in a list of the 29 countries that he had conquered.

Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army arrived to the area of Afghanistan in 330 BCE after defeating Darius III of Persia a year earlier in the Battle of Gaugamela. Following Alexander's brief occupation, the successor state of the Seleucid Empire controlled the area until 305 BCE when they gave much of it to the Indian Maurya Empire as part of an alliance treaty.



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